A Close Look at Robert W. Bradford and His
Committee for Freedom of Choice in Medicine

Stephen Barrett, M.D.

The Committee for Freedom of Choice in Medicine (CFCM) was the political arm of several interlocking corporations that promoted and/or marketed questionable remedies for cancer and other serious diseases. It also worked to abolish federal and state laws intended to protect consumers in the health marketplace. Operating during the 1970s as the Committee for Freedom of Choice in Cancer Therapy (CFCCT), it fought for legalization of laetrile (a quack cancer remedy) and claimed to have many members. By the mid-1980s, it appeared to be a small group whose principal activities were educational conferences, protests to government officials, and publication of a small-circulation newsletter. All of the organizations were founded by Robert W. Bradford (1931-2011), who gathered a variety of dubious credentials and published what he considered scientific reports about many of the methods that he promoted. He has also operated a nonaccredited "medical school" and sponsored conferences that promoted his methods and products. It would be fair to conclude that that he has thumbed his nose at scientific medicine and government regulatory agencies for more than 35 years.

Background History

The CFCM was launched in 1972 as the CFCCT, incorporated in February 1973, and assumed its current name in 1984 [1]. At around the same time, Bradford also founded the Robert Bradford Research Institute; the Robert W. Bradford Foundation; American Biologics-Mexico (a hospital in Tijuana); a pharmaceutical firm called American Biologics. Later he founded a nonaccredited school called Capitol University of Integrative Medicine. All except the hospital and school were located at the same address in Chula Vista, California. In 1999, American Biologics stopped licensing its name to the Mexican facility and began operating a new one [2].

The CFCCT's formation was triggered by the arrest of John A. Richardson, MD, an Albany, California, physician who frequently prescribed laetrile. As described by a Committee official:

State and local officers, armed with warrants charging Richardson and two of his nurses with multiple violations of the state's "cancer quackery" statutes, burst into the doctor's clinic. . . . The arrest of Dr. Richardson, an outspoken Bircher not known to back away from a good fight, was tantamount to arresting the Birch Society itself, although the conservative organization took no stand as a society, on the matter. The Richardson arrest marked the entrance into the vitamin B-17 controversy of numerous Birchers, many of them grouped in a complex of ad hoc committees collectively known as the Committee for Freedom of Choice in Cancer Therapy [3].

Although Dr. Richardson's arrest did not ultimately result in a conviction, the California Board of Medical Quality Assurance revoked his medical license in 1976 for "extreme departure from the standard practice of medicine." [4]

Political Goals and Activities

During the mid-1970s, CFCCT publications listed the following objectives:

1. The Committee does not claim competence to judge the relative merits of various cancer therapies.

2. The Committee does take a strong position, however, on behalf of freedom of choice for both physicians and patients to use whatever therapy they mutually accept.

3. History has shown that governments often have institutionalized and perpetuated error in scientific questions. Therefore, the Committee opposes any effort by the FDA or any other agency of the government to pass judgment on any cancer theory or therapy.

4. All currently used Western therapies—surgery, drugs, radiation—admittedly are dangerous and harmful to the patients in varying degrees. Therefore, the Committee does not support the FDA's ruling against the use of Laetrile (a nontoxic vitamin food supplement) on the grounds that it might be harmful.

5. The quality of medical research and practice declines in direct proportion to the degree to which it is influenced by politics. Therefore the Committee believes that the government should get off the back of private research and out of the field of medical practice.

The Committee pledges its moral and financial support to physicians and patients in their legal battles to achieve these objectives [5].

During the 1970s, the Committee held seminars, symposia and "doctors' workshops" and distributed books, pamphlets, cassette tapes, and other information on unproven methods of cancer management. The organization also generated letter-writing campaigns in support of these methods and the practitioners who used them. The primary political goal appeared to be the passage of state and federal laws to legalize the use of laetrile.

In 1984, the Committee presented the United Nations Center for Human Rights in Geneva with what it considered to be evidence of "medical genocide and medical tyranny as practiced in the United States." [6] A Center official informed me that the outcome of the petition cannot be revealed, because all alleged violations are handled under a confidential procedure [7]. However, I could find no published evidence that the Center considered the Committee's viewpoint credible.

During the 1990s, the Committee opposed a California bill to permit forfeiture of property in certain cases of health fraud and a federal nutrition labeling bill provision to restrict claims for nutritional supplements. It has also supported various bills that would weaken the FDA and make it more difficult for state boards to discipline "alternative" practitioners.

Organizational Structure

CFCM's Web site described it as a nonprofit advocacy and educational group whose main functions were to serve as an information clearinghouse, provide information and speakers for health conventions, provide testimony to legislatures or courts, and serve as a doctor/patient referral system for "integrative" therapy.

CFCM president Robert Bradford, was also president of the Robert Bradford Research Institute (BRI), the Robert W. Bradford Foundation, American Biologics, and American Biologics Integrative Medical Center. According to a Stanford University official, Bradford graduated from San Jose State University and worked from 1963 to 1976 as an electronics engineer for the Stanford University Linear Accelerator Center [8]. Bradford's publications include Now That You Have Cancer (a laetrile metabolic program orientation handbook); The Biochemical Basis of Live Cell Therapy, Oxidology: The Study of Reactive Oxygen Toxic Species (ROTS) and Their Metabolism in Health and Disease; and International Protocols in Cancer Management. Bradford is said to have received two honorary degrees: a "cultural doctorate in nutritional science" in 1983 from the World University and a "doctor of biochemistry degree" in 1984 from Medicina Alternativa, an "international holistic medical group" in Sri Lanka. Although these degrees have no academic standing, he generally identifies himself as "Dr. Bradford.""Robert Bradford, DSc," or Robert Bradford, "DSc, NMD." I do not know the origin of the "NMD," but it could not have come from an accredited school.

Robert Bradford's wife Carole Bradford, the Committee's secretary/treasurer, was also chief executive officer of American Biologics Integrative Medical Center and Director of the Bradford Research Institute, She is coauthor of Cookbook for Healthful Living, a book said to include recipes accompanying the American Biologics Hospital treatment program. In 1998, she announced that she had undergone successful treatment of a breast cancer at the Hospital. According to her story, a breast cyst she had removed in 1993 turned out to be an ductal cell carcinoma the size of a golf ball. She took tamoxifen (a standard drug) for two months plus 30 types of supplement, herb, and homeopathic pills and daily injections of laetrile and many other substances for several months. Later she reduced the number of pills and "crammed 12,000-gauss magnets into her brassiere as a daily kind of localized magnetic therapy." [9]. In a 1999 interview, she stated that she considered herself "privileged because I had the best doctor—my husband—and my hospital." She also said that she was using a preventive program that dietary measures, "organic foods," nutritional supplements and colonic irrigation [10]. Although she would like to believe that her unconventional treatments have cured her. However, ductal cancer treated with lumpectomy (lump removal) alone has a fairly good prognosis. According to one study, for example, the odds of surviving eight years without evidence of recurrence were about 60% [11].

Michael L. Culbert (1937-2004), a former newspaperman and freelance writer, edited The Choice for more than 20 years and served as CFCM board chairman and as vice president and public relations director of American Biologics Hospital. His books include Vitamin B17—Forbidden Weapon Against Cancer (1974); Freedom from Cancer—The Amazing Story of Laetrile (1976); Medical Revolution in America (1981); What the Medical Establishment Won't Tell You that Could Save Your Life (1984); AIDS: Terror, Truth and Triumph; AIDS: Hope, Hoax and Hoopla (1989); and Medical Armageddon (1994 and 1995). He also co-authored How You Can Beat the Killer Diseases (1977) and the books listed above by Robert Bradford. Culbert had a bachelor of arts degree from the University of Wichita and an "honorary DSc degree" from Medicina Alternativa. In 1996, Culbert founded and became president of the International Council for Health Freedom (ICHF), which was described on its Web site as "an informational clearinghouse between groups and people in all countries which pursue the objective of medical free choice and new ideas in medicine and healing." The ICHF Web site disappeared about a year after Culbert's death, and the organization appears to be defunct.

Bruce Halstead, MD (1920-2002), who for many years was the Committee's vice-president, operated the Halstead Preventive Medicine Clinic in Colton, California, and was a leading promoter of laetrile, chelation therapy, and many other questionable practices. In 1985, he was convicted of 12 counts of cancer fraud and grand theft for selling an herbal tea called ADS to ten patients with cancer and other serious diseases for $125 to $150 a quart. Although he maintained that ADS was a "nutritional supplement," analysis showed it to be 99.4% water mixed with a brownish sludge composed mainly of coliform bacteria, the bacteria found in human feces. Following the trial, which lasted five months, Los Angeles County Deputy District Attorney Hyatt Seligman called Dr. Halstead "a crook selling swamp water." [12] He was fined $10,000 and sentenced to four years in prison, but practiced for several more years while appealing his conviction. After his final appeal was denied (1991), he was sentenced to prison and his medical license was revoked (1992) [13]. However, the authorities apparently overlooked him and he was not incarcerated until 1997, when he served few months in prison.

Rodrigo Rodriguez, MD, the Committee's international vice president, cofounded and directed American Biologics-Mexico. In the late 1990s, after splitting with Bradford, he operated a clinic called International Biologics. Today his facility is called the International Biocare Hospital and Medical Center.

The Robert W. Bradford Foundation, which no longer exists, was described as a nonprofit research and educational trust founded in 1978 to support private, independent scientific research into the metabolic management of degenerative disease and provide a clearinghouse for educational materials to physicians, patients, medical students, health professionals, and institutions of higher learning [14]. According to Culbert, the Foundation's principal activity was publication of BRI research books and monographs [15].

The Robert Bradford Research Institute, founded in 1979, is a private foundation that publishes reports and monographs said to be the results of research done by the Institute. Its tax returns listed income of $13,819 in 1987, $17,518 in 1988, and $1,549 in 1989 [16]. Its California CT-2 periodic tax report for 1998 listed gross receipts of $38,459 and total assets of $40,292. Its federal form 990-PF tax returns show gross income of $6,297 in 2005, $10,180 in 2006, $37,871 in 2007, $29,983 in 2008, and $3,069 for 2009.

The Choice began monthly publication in 1975 with Culbert as editor. Its assistant editor was Maureen Salaman, who later became president of the National Health Federation (NHF) [17], another group promoting "health freedom." After 1980, The Choice was published two to four times a year. A December 1981 CFCCT report to "committee chairmen and interested members" attributed the decreased frequency to lack of funds [18]. The articles invariably promoted "alternative" treatment and criticize scientifically accepted treatment and government regulation of the health marketplace. Headlines like "Herbal poultices demolish tumors at AB Hospital," [19] "New research blasts 'standard' Ca therapies," [20] "Fedstapo targeting our medical freedom" [21], and "'FDA-OK'd medications kill 100,000 a year'" [22] typified the organization's viewpoint. Culbert ended his association with Bradford in the late 1990s. Carole Bradford and edited Choice for about a year, after which it ceased publication. Meanwhile, Culbert joined the NHF's Board of Governors and edited its Health Freedom News magazine for a few years.

American Biologics-Mexico, which opened in 1978, was described in its brochures as "North America's most advanced holistic medical center." It claimed to offer "new hope for sufferers of cancer, heart disease, MS, allergies, all forms of metabolic dysfunction." By the late 1980s, it claimed to have treated more than 15,000 patients. Ads have appeared regularly in chiropractic and health-food-industry publications. In 1988, about 75% of the hospital's patients were said to be treated for cancer [23]. During the 1980s, I observed itemized statements to insurance companies that identified treatments as "chemother/inj" without indicating that laetrile was included [24].

In 1999, American Biologics stopped licensing its name to the Mexican facility (which was renamed International Biologics Hospital and Medical Center) and began operating a new Tijuana facility called American Biologics Integrative Medicine Center. The treatments listed on the center's Web site included: acupuncture; advanced oxidative therapy; anti-microbial therapy; applied kinesiology; bioelectrical therapy; bioelectrical therapy; chondroitin sulfates; colonic irrigation and/or rectal implants to establish; comprehensive antioxidant therapies; detoxification/modalities; dietary modification; DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide); EDTA chelation treatments; enzyme therapy; genetic repair therapy; genetic therapy ("to repair or normalize the DNA of cancer cells"); hormonal and glandular supplementation; hydrotherapy; intravenous infusion therapy; laetrile therapy; live cell therapy; liver, bladder and kidney flushes; massage therapy; nutritional medicine; pulsed magnetic therapy; and oral/intravenous administration of vitamins, minerals, enzymes, amino acids, and essential fatty acids. Some standard treatment modalities are also offered. At about the same time, Culbert terminated his association with Bradford and the Choice published a few issues and then became defunct. Today, Bradford is listed as "scientific advisor" of Ingles Hospital & Integrative Medical Center in Tijuana.

American Biologics, a "metabolic pharmaceutical firm," markets products and was also the U.S. representative office for American Biologics-Mexico. During the early 1980s, the company's "professional catalog" listed enzymes, digestive aids, emulsified vitamins, minerals, Gerovital, injectable glandulars, oral glandulars, and specialty products, such as DMSO, benzaldehyde, apricot kernels, EDTA, and laetrile, as well as books, tapes and films, and lab test apparatus. In 1982, an article in The Choice stated that American Biologics was "the major amygdalin [laetrile] distributor in the world." [22] In 1988, the company donated about $20,000 in money and laboratory equipment to John Bastyr College, a naturopathy school in Seattle [26]. Its recent offerings have included shark cartilage, homeopathic products, and others that in vogue today.

The Capitol University of Integrative Medicine (CUIM), a nonaccredited school headquartered in Washington, D.C., was founded by Robert Bradford and three others. Its offerings included "Doctor of Integrated Medicine" and "Master of Integrated Health Science" programs. Its first graduating class (December 1998) included 7 medical doctors, 5 dentists, 4 physical therapists, 4 naturopaths, and 7 others [27]. Bradford served as "Professor of Medicine/Chairman, Dept. of Oxidology, Microbiology and Microscopy." In December 2000, CUIM awarded an honorary "doctor of humanities degree" to U.S. Representative Dan Burton (R-IN), quackery's best friend in Congress. CUIM officially closed its operations as of June 30, 2006 but it appears to have stopped functioning in 2003.

Questionable Membership Statistics

In 1976, CFCCT memberships cost $15 (regular), $100 (sustaining), $500 (associate) and $1,000 (life), which included The Choice. The membership is said to have peaked at about 40,000 members with 520 chapters nationwide [23]. In 1989, Culbert stated that the CFCCT had entered a "quiescent phase" in the early 1980s and "diminished in force . . . to a palace guard of a few dozen committees and about 5,000 members." [28] However, CFCM does not appear to be functioning as a formal organization. For many years, subscribers to The Choice were automatically been designated as members of the Committee [15]. Although Culbert held the title of chairman of the board, his main activity appeared to have been as editor of The Choice.

The CFCCT's tax returns filed with the California Registry of Charitable Trusts reported the following gross income: 1976-$119,352, 1977-$155,916, 1978-$152,786, 1979-$75,857, 1980-$36,429, 1981-$19,019, and 1982-$11,148. (The group's fiscal year ran from March 1 through the end of February.) None of these returns contain an entry for membership dues. The return for fiscal 1982 listed contributions of $1,014 and gross sales of $10,134 [29].

In 1992, when I last checked, CFCM's income appeared to be small. In 1988, Culbert attested that the organization's "mailing list" was between 2,000 and 2,500 [30]. Not all of these, however, were paid subscribers. In 1991, he said that 10,000 copies of The Choice were published quarterly, some 4,000 of which were subscriptions [30] Although he said that 50 chapters of the Committee were still active, I have seen no evidence of chapter activity since the early 1980s.

Legal Involvements

In 1977, Robert Bradford, Frank Salaman (then CFCCT vice-president), Dr. John Richardson and Richardson's office manager Ralph Bowman were convicted of conspiring to smuggle laetrile. Bradford was fined $40,000, Richardson $20,000, and Salaman and Bowman $10,000 each [31]. In 1986, a U.S. Court of Appeals upheld a tax court assessment of more than $2 million in income taxes and penalties against Bradford for income derived from smuggling laetrile from Mexico into the United States. During the proceedings, the courts concluded that Bradford (a) engaged in illegal activities, (b) failed to file federal tax returns for four consecutive years, (c) failed to report substantial business income, his salary from Stanford, and the gain on the sale of his residence, all of which he knew constituted taxable income, (d) dealt in cash to avoid scrutiny of his finances, (e) filed false W-4's, (f) made efforts to conceal his laetrile distribution activities, (g) failed to make estimated tax payments; (h) failed to cooperate with the revenue agent during the audit examination; and (i) failed to maintain adequate records [32].

In 1980, a few days after the Mayo Clinic began its clinical trial of laetrile [33] the CFCCT sought a temporary restraining order. The suit charged that the amygdalin used for the test was "degraded" and would yield negative results that "would likely terminate both future testing and future use" of laetrile [34], the court ruled that the plaintiffs lacked standing to sue [35].

In 1984, the CFCM sued to intervene in Rutherford vs. United States, an action intended to stop the FDA from interfering with the sale of laetrile. The suit also sought to block interference with manufacturers, sellers, and distributors of supplies to unorthodox physicians, to cancer patients, and to others suffering from "chronic degenerative disease." Two months later, after Rutherford's attorneys and principal backers objected, CFCM's suit was withdrawn [36]. Rutherford eventually lost the suit.

In 1984, federal authorities in Texas seized a shipment of products that included injectable pangamic acid ("vitamin B15") marketed by American Biologics. The shipment was destroyed under court order [37].

In 1986, the FDA ordered American Biologics to stop making claims that a copper salicylate product (Arthrinol) was effective for "the temporary relief of minor aches and pains associated with arthritis, bursitis, neuritis, and rheumatism." [38] In 1988, the FDA ordered the company to stop selling calcium orotate, magnesium orotate, zinc orotate, evening primrose oil, and germanium products [39].

In 2004, the FDA ordered American Biologics to stop making illegal health claims for AB-fem Glandular, AB-Male Glandular, Flu Solve™, Candida Albicans, Ultra Brain Power™, Bronchostem™, Calcium A.E.P., Pancreas Glandular, Pituitary Glandular, and Sub-Adrene™ and Adrenal Cortex Extract [40].

In 2008, Robert Bradford, C.R.B. Inc (doing business as American Biologics), and the company's chief operating officer Brigitte G. Bird, and John R. Toth, M.D., a doctor from Kansas who was serving time in prison for negligently killing a patient, were indicted on federal charges of conspiring to violate federal food and drug laws and defraud individuals seeking medical care [41]. The case centered around (a) the marketing of a microscope used to falsely diagnose Lyme disease and (b) the sale of several phony products for treating it [42]. In 2009, the U.S. Attorney's office issued a superseding indictment that added Carole Bradford to the list of defendants [43]. All eventually pleaded guilty to count I of the superseding indictment: conspiring to commit mail fraud and introduce unapproved and misbranded drugs and a medical device into interstate commerce.

In 2011, the Bradfords, Byrd, and C.R.B were jointly ordered to pay restitution totaling $40,372 to two people who were treated at Hospital Ingles. C.R.B. was fined $1,000 plus a $400 asessment; the others were assed $100. All were placed on probation—the Bradfords and C.R.B. for 5 years and Byrd for 3. Toth, who had already served 26 months in prison, was sentenced to time served. C.R.B. was permitted to remain in business but was barred from marketing drugs or medical devices with illegal claims. The court also imposed forfeture judgments (representing the proceeds obtained by the illegal activity), with Carole Bradford and C.R.B. jointly liable for $700,000, Robert Bradford jointly liable for $400,000, Toth jointly liable for $25,100, and Byrd jointly liable for $10,000 [44]. In his presentencing statement, Bradford told the court that he has metastatic prostate cancer and was advised in April 2010 that only 5% of patients with his condition survive three years [45]. He died on August 4, 2011 at the age of 80.

Advice to Consumers

In 1993, the American Cancer Society issued a position paper "strongly urging individuals with cancer not to seek treatment based on the recommendations of the Committee or its leaders." [46] Although the committee no longer exists, that advice is still prudent.

References

  1. Committee is changing its name. The Choice 10(1):3, 1984.
  2. Bradford RW. American Biologics Integrative Medical Center: There is only one! Letter to American Biologics' patients and friends, Nov 1999.
  3. Culbert ML. Vitamin B17: Forbidden Weapon against Cancer. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1974, p 21.
  4. Richardson J: Laetrile Case Histories. New York City: Bantam Books, 1977, p 88.
  5. Flyers for Committee for Freedom of Choice in Cancer Therapy symposia, 1973-1976, Chula Vista, Calif.
  6. The Committee for Freedom of Choice in Medicine vs. United States Food and Drug Administration, American Medical Association, American Cancer Society, National Cancer Institute, and all divisions, state and local affiliates and similar or parallel organizations, public or private, of the above. Filed June 21, 1984.
  7. Hinkle-Babiel K. Letter to Stephen Barrett, MD, June 18, 1991.
  8. Barnett N (staff member of registrar's office, Stanford University). Telephone communication, June 1991.
  9. Carole conquers cancer: One woman's odyssey. The Choice 24(2): 24-30, 1998.
  10. Chowka PB. Carole Bradford's update on a long term cancer survivor and how she did it. The Choice 25(2):2-7, 1999.
  11. Silverstein MJ and others. Prognostic classification of breast ductal carcinoma-in-situ. Lancet 345:1154-1157 1995.
  12. Feldman P. Jury convicts Colton physician of cancer fraud. Los Angeles Times, October 4, 1985..
  13. Leary M. State pulls license of area doctor. San Bernardino Sun, February 13, 1992.
  14. Health Information for physicians and patients. Undated brochure distributed by the Bradford Foundation in the early 1980s.
  15. Culbert ML. Letter to American Cancer Society, July 1, 1991.
  16. Robert Bradford Research Institute. Tax return of private foundation, 9/13/88, 6/16/89, 5/9/90.
  17. Unproven methods of cancer management: National Health Federation. CA—A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 41:61-64, 1991.
  18. Committee for Freedom of Choice in Cancer Therapy: Report to committee chairmen and interested members, Dec 1981.
  19. Stunning results in Mexico. Herbal poultices demolish tumors at AB Hospital. The Choice 8(2):4, 1982.
  20. New research blasts 'standard' CA therapies. The Choice 16(1):1, 1990.
  21. Fedstapo targeting our medical freedom. The Choice 12(1):1, 1986.
  22. 'FDA-OK'd medications kill 100,000 a year.' The Choice 19(2):2, 1993.
  23. Culbert ML, Bradford RW, Rodriguez R. The cancer treatment experience at American Biologics-Mexico S.A. Medical Center: An overview of patients and treatments. Submitted in October 1987 to the Advisory Panel for Alternative and Adjunctive Therapy, Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress.
  24. Claim forms submitted to a Blue Shield carrier through North American Health Insurance Coordinators, Houston, Texas, 1987-1988
  25. New therapies bloom at AB Hospital. The Choice 8(2):1, 1982.
  26. Bastyr College cites Bradford donations. The Choice 15(1,2): 33, 1989.
  27. 1982: Committee marks a decade of scientific innovation. The Choice 8(4):4-6, 1982.
  28. Culbert ML. Letter to the American Cancer Society, Atlanta, April 7, 1989.
  29. Committee for Freedom of Choice in Cancer Therapy, Chula Vista, CA. Periodic report to Attorney General of California, 10/31/83.
  30. Culbert ML. Affidavit in Herbert vs American Quack Association, March 9, 1988.
  31. Wilson B: The rise and fall of laetrile. Nutrition Forum 5:33-40, 1988.
  32. Opinion. In Bradford vs. Commissioner of Internal Revenue. U.S. Court of Appeals, 9th District, Aug 6, 1986,
  33. Moertel C and others. A clinical trial of amygdalin (Laetrile) in the treatment of human cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 306:201-206, 1982.
  34. Robert Bradford et al vs National Cancer Institute et al. Filed March 28, 1980, San Francisco.
  35. Court stops suit against NCI's 'phony' B17 test. The Choice 6(3):7, 1980.
  36. Monaco GP, Burke R. Suits aimed at antiquackery laws. Nutrition Forum 2:89-90, 1985.
  37. Summaries of court actions. FDA Consumer 20(6):39, 1986.
  38. Sawyer TL (Director, Compliance Branch, FDA, San Francisco). Regulatory letter to Robert W. Bradford, Aug. 27, 1986.
  39. Sawyer TL. Regulatory letter to Carole Bradford, Aug. 12, 1988.
  40. Walker SJ. Warning letter to Carol Bradford. Nov 30, 2004.
  41. Indictment. USA v. C.R.B. (dba American Biologics), Robert W. Bradford, Brigitte G. Bird, and John R. Toth. U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas. Case No. 08-20168, filed Dec 4, 2008.
  42. Barrett S. Some notes on the Bradford Variable Projection Microscope. Device Watch, June 30, 2009.
  43. Indictment charges California woman in Lyme disease fraud case. USDOJ news release, Sept 10, 2009.
  44. California residents sentenced for selling phony lyme disease cure. Press release, U.S. Attorney's Office, District of Kansas, March 2, 2011.
  45. Statement of issues pertinent to sentencing. USA vs. Robert W. Bradford,U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas. Case No. 08-20168, filed Feb 4, 2011.
  46. Questionable methods of cancer management: The Committee for Freedom of Choice in Medicine, Inc. CA—A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 43:117-123, 1993.

This article was revised on March 20, 2012.