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Disciplinary Actions against Howard P. Levy, D.O.

Howard P. Levy has been disciplined twice by the Medical Board of California. In 2006, as detailed below, he was accused of gross negligence in his management of a patient whom he had seen 65 times in his office and 3 or 4 times at the patient’s home. The treatment included several intravenous hydrogen peroxide …

Howard P. Levy has been disciplined twice by the Medical Board of California. In 2006, as detailed below, he was accused of gross negligence in his management of a patient whom he had seen 65 times in his office and 3 or 4 times at the patient’s home. The treatment included several intravenous hydrogen peroxide infusions, which the board considered “experimental.” The accusation also stated that Dr. Levy’s records were not accurate in that they were “illegible, disorganized, and incomplete” and contained no consent form, no indication of what dosage was used, and no list of the patient’s problems. In 2008, the board ordered Levy to pay $15,000 for costs and serve on probation for five years, during which he was required to take a course on record-keeping and have his records monitored for one year.

In 2017, Levy was accused of negligence, inadequate record-keeping, and/or administering treatments that were not medically indicated to seven patients and one undercover investigator from the board. The case was settled with a stipulation under which Levy was assessed $15,000 for costs and serve five more years of probation, during which he was required to (a) complete a clinical competency assessment and training program; (b) take continuing education courses in pharmacology and medical ethics; and (c) have his practice monitored for at least two years.

The Michigan Department of  Licensing and Regulatory Web site indicates that between 1996 and 2003, Levy was suspended once, placed on probation three times, and fined four times. The details are not posted, but the 2017 California complaint states that the suspension was due to a conviction for fraudulent billing.



BEFORE THE
OSTEOPATHIC MEDICAL BOARD OF CALIFORNIA
DEPARTMENT OF CONSUMER AFFAIRS
STATE OF CALIFORNIA

In the Matter of the Accusation Against:

HOWARD P. LEVY, D.O.
1700 N. Via Norte
Palm Springs, CA 92262

Osteopathic Physician and Surgeon Certificate No. 20A4148

Respondent.


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Case No. 00-2005-001494

OAH NO.

ACCUSATION

Complainant alleges:

PARTIES

1. Donald Krpan (Complainant) brings this Accusation solely in his officcapacity as the Executive Director (A) of the Osteopathic Medical Board of California.

2. On or about August 3, 1977, the Osteopathic Medical Board of California issued Osteopathic Physician’s and Surgeon’s Certificate No. 20A4148 to HOWARD P. LEVY, D.O. (Respondent). The Osteopathic Physician’s and Surgeon’s Certificate was in full force and effect at all times relevant to the charges brought herein and will expire on February 29, 2008, unless renewed.

JURISDICTION

3. This Accusation is brought before the Osteopathic Medical Board of California, under the authority of the following laws. All section references are to the Business and Professions Code unless otherwise indicated.

4. Section 2234 of the Code states:

“The Division of Medical Quality shall take action against any licensee who is charged with unprofessional conduct. In addition to other provisions of this article, unprofessional conduct includes, but is not limited to, the following:

“(a) Violating or attempting to violate, directly or indirectly, assisting in or abetting the violation of, or conspiring to violate any provision of this chapter.

“(b) Gross negligence.

“(c) Repeated negligent acts. To be repeated, there must be two or more negligent acts or omissions. An initial negligent act or omission followed by a separate and distinct departure from the applicable standard of care shall constitute repeated negligent acts.

(1) An initial negligent diagnosis fo11owed by an act or omission medically appropriate for that negligent diagnosis of the patient shall constitute a single negligent act.

“(2) When the standard of care requires a change in the diagnosis, act, or omission that constitutes the negligent act described in paragraph (I), including, but not limited to, a reevaluation of the diagnosis or a change in treatment, and the licensee’s conduct departs from the applicable standard of care, each departure constitutes a separate and distinct breach of the standard of care.

“(d) Incompetence.

“(e) The commission of any act involving dishonesty or corruption which is substantially related to the qualifications, functions, or duties of a physician and surgeon. “(f) Any action or conduct which would have warranted the denial of a certificate. “(g) The practice of medicine from this state into another state or country without meeting the legal requirements of that state or country for the practice of medicine. Section 2314 shall not apply to this subdivision. This subdivision shall become operative upon the implementation of the proposed registration program described in Section 2052.5.”

5. Section 3600 of the Code states that the law governing licentiates of the Osteopathic Medical Board of California is found in the Osteopathic Act and in Chapter 5 of Division 2, relating to medicine.

6. Section 3600-2 of the Code states:

The Osteopathic Medical Board of California shall enforce those portions of the Medical Practice Act identified as Article 12 (commencing with Section 2220), of Chapter 5 of Division 2 of the Business and Professions Code, as now existing or hereafter amended, as to persons who hold certificates subject to the jurisdiction of the Osteopathic Medical Board of California, however, persons who elect to practice using the term or suffix 11M.D.11 as provided in Section 2275 of the Business and Professions Code, as now existing or hereafter amended, shall not be subject to this section, and the Medical Board of California shall enforce the provisions of the article as to persons who make the election. After making the election, each person so electing shall apply for renewal of his or her certificate to the Medical Board of California, and the Medical Board of California shall issue renewal certificates in the same manner as other renewal certificates are issued by it.”

7. Section 2266 of the Code states: “The failure of a physician and surgeon to maintain adequate and accurate records relating to the provision of services to their patients constitutes unprofessional conduct.”

8. Section 125.3 of the Code states, in pertinent part, that the Board may request the administrative law judge to direct a licentiate found to have committed a violation or violations of the licensing act to pay a sum not to exceed the reasonable costs of the investigation and enforcement of the case.

FIRST CAUSE FOR DISCIPLINE
(Gross Negligence)

9. Respondent is subject to disciplinary action under Code sections 3600, 3600-2 and 2234 as defined by 2234 (b) in that he was grossly negligent in connection with his care, treatment and management of patient P.K. The circumstances are as follows:

10. Between on or about February 16, 2004, and March 11, 2005, P.K., a then 82-year-old male, was a patient of Respondent. Respondent saw P.K. for approximately 65 office visits and respondent treated P.K. on three or four home visits.

11. During this time, most of the care provided to P.K. by Respondent was directed to five chronic medical problems which included COPD, chronic olecranon bursitis, osteoarthritis of the knees, lower urinary tract symptoms and chronic oropharyngeal discomfort attributed to a fungal infection (yeast).

12. Respondent did not believe that P.K.’s oropharyngeal discomfort or respiratory distress and possible fungal (yeast) infection was being adequately treated with conventional therapy and recommended to P.K. that he undergo a series of treatments by intravenous infusion of hydrogen peroxide. Although Respondent knew and told his patient that the use of hydrogen peroxide was experimental, he did not follow approved research protocol for its use nor did he document the patient’s consent to the experimental use of hydrogen peroxide. Respondent treated P.K. with hydrogen peroxide on several occasions.

13. Patient P.K. also suffered from chronic olecranon bursitis. The olecranon is located at the posterior point of the elbow and has a synovial membrane that may become affected by gout, rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, hemorrhage, or trauma. Fluid accumulated in the patient’s olecranon bursa and Respondent treated the condition by joint aspiration on eight occasions. On or about January 10, 2005, following the seventh aspiration, Respondent sent the synovial fluid to a laboratory for analysis but did not request a bacterial culture. Respondent never recommended surgical removal as definitive treatment.

14. Between on or about January 27, 2005, and February 9, 2005, Respondent diagnosed P.K. with interstitial fibrosis and treated him with Imuran (azathioprine). The medical records do not contain medical evidence or findings to support the diagnosis or the use of Imuran, a powerful drug with potential adverse reactions. Also, Respondent did. not consider that the use of experimental hydrogen peroxide might be the cause of P.K.’s condition.

15. The Respondent’s medical records for P.K. are not adequate or accurate in that they are illegible, disorganized, and incomplete. There is no initial history and physical examination of the patient, no general consent form, no specific consent form for the use of experimental hydrogen peroxide treatment, no report of the concentration of hydrogen peroxide used when administered, and no problem list.

SECOND CAUSE FOR DISCIPLINE

Repeated Negligent Acts)

16. Respondent is subject to disciplinary action under Code sections 3600, 3600-2 and 2234 as defined by 2234 (c) in that he was repeatedly negligent in connection with his care, treatment and management of patient P. K. as set forth in paragraphs 9- 15 above which are incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth.

THIRD CAUSE FOR DISCIPLINE

(Incompetence)

17. Respondent is subject to disciplinary action under Code sections 3600, 3600-2 and 2234 as defined by 2234 (d) in that he was incompetent in connection with his care, treatment and management of patient P. K. as set forth in paragraphs 9-1 5 above which are incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth.

FOURTH CAUSE FOR DISCIPLINE

(Records)

18. Respondent is subject to disciplinary action under Code sections 3600, 3600-2 and 2234 as defined by 2266 in that his medical records for patient P.K. are neither adequate nor accurate as set forth in paragraphs 9-15 above which are incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth.

PRAYER

WHEREFORE, Complainant requests that a hearing be held on the matters herein alleged, and that following the hearing, the Osteopathic Medical Board of California issue a decision:

1. Revoking or suspending Osteopathic Physician and Surgeon Number 20A4148, issued to HOWARD P. LEVY, D.O.

2. Ordering HOWARD P. LEVY, D.O. to pay the Osteopathic Medical Board of California the reasonable costs of the investigation and enforcement of this case, pursuant to Business and Professions Code section 125.3; and, if placed on probation, the costs of probation monitoring; and,

3. Taking such other and further action as deemed necessary and proper.

DATED: 7-20-06

________________________
DONALD KRPAN
Executive Director
Osteopathic Medical Board of California
State of California
Complainant

BILL LOCKYER, Attorney General of the State of California
HARINDER K. KAPUR, State Bar No. 198769
Deputy Attorney General California
Department of Justice
110 West “A” Street, Suite 1100
San Diego, CA 92101
P.O. Box 85266
San Diego, CA 92186-5266
Telephone: (619) 645-2075
Facsimile: (619) 645-2061

Attorneys for Complainant

This page was posted on March 25, 2010.



Antivaccination Ad Criticized (1981)

In March 1981, FDA Consumer magazine published the following account of a chiropractic ad that was severely criticized Public Disservice Announcement “Your Child Does Not Have To Be Immunized For School,” read an advertisement in a metropolitan Detroit newspaper. “Would you let your child have live puss from sick animals or the use of dead bacteria …

In March 1981, FDA Consumer magazine published the following account of a chiropractic ad that was severely criticized

Public Disservice Announcement

“Your Child Does Not Have To Be Immunized For School,” read an advertisement in a metropolitan Detroit newspaper. “Would you let your child have live puss from sick animals or the use of dead bacteria put into their veins?

The ad horrified the health officials who saw it, and not just because of the bad grammar and poor spelling, such as pus with two s’s. An investigator in FDA’s Detroit District showed the district’s consumer affairs officer (CAO), and she called the newspaper. None of the editors could fathom how an ad so misleading and grossly inaccurate had gotten onto the “Back-To-School” pages. Not only were the statements about vaccines completely false, but the ad falsely claimed to be a public service announcement. The name Taylor Straight Chiropractic Center was in large type (along with the phone numbers and office hours) and the copy read: “Health comes totally from the body. Take care of your health and your family’s health through a spinal exam today.” The editors agreed with the CAO that the ad was a disservice to the paper’s readers. At her suggestion, they printed an editorial rebuttal based on an interview with the director of the Wayne County Department of Public Health. The editor also had a few words with the newspaper’s advertising staff.

The CAO contacted the Michigan Department of Health, which promptly wrote a “letter to the editor,” which, when published, termed the chiropractic ad “a flagrant distortion of facts.”

No vaccine is produced for, required of, or given to children which uses pus or dead bacteria from sick animals. All vaccines are given intramuscularly or subcutaneously, not into veins as the ad implies.” The letter pointed out that before vaccines were available, thousands of children were crippled—or killed—by diphtheria, whooping cough, rubella, measles, and polio. Before polio vaccine was licensed in 1955, for instance, 30,000 to 60,000 cases of polio were reported each year. Now there are fewer than 25 cases per year.

The letter added: “Ironically, one of the few cases of diphtheria reported in 1979 occurred in the 5-year-old son of a California chiropractor, who had signed a waiver against immunizations. The boy was the only unimmunized child in his class. He subsequently died of the disease.”

What worried both Federal and State agencies was that the Detroit newspaper was part of a large chain of weekly papers. The health department contacted all county and local health departments across the State, advising them to watch for similar advertisements. The department also contacted the State Attorney General’s office and the Department of Licensing and Regulation. Those agencies are investigating the matter and are considering taking action against the chiropractor for unethical conduct.

 

Recently, when I saw this article, I was curious about whether the chiropractor was ever disciplined. Searching with Google, I was able to determine that the ad had been placed in the Detroit Free Press by Joseph L. Belcher, D.C.

I also found that on May 6, 1981, the Lansing State Journal published an article titled “Vaccine Issue Divides Board,” which said that the board was equally divided about whether to pursue a complaint and had tabled the matter without settling a date for reconsideration. No further action was taken.



Stephen Barrett, M.D. Biographical Sketch

Stephen Barrett, M.D., a retired psychiatrist who lives near Chapel Hill, North Carolina, has achieved national renown as an author, editor, and consumer advocate. In addition to operating Quackwatch, he is a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. In 1984, he received an FDA Commissioner’s Special Citation Award for Public Service in fighting nutrition …

Stephen Barrett, M.D., a retired psychiatrist who lives near Chapel Hill, North Carolina, has achieved national renown as an author, editor, and consumer advocate. In addition to operating Quackwatch, he is a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. In 1984, he received an FDA Commissioner’s Special Citation Award for Public Service in fighting nutrition quackery. In 1986, he was awarded honorary membership in the American Dietetic Association. From 1987 through 1989, he taught health education at The Pennsylvania State University. He is listed in Marquis Who‘s Who in America and received the 2001 Distinguished Service to Health Education Award from the American Association for Health Education. He is also a board member of Prescription Justice, a nonprofit group that is working toward lower drug prices. His research library, pictured below, houses more than 5,000 books and 100,000 documents and recordings collected over a 50-year period.

An expert in medical communications, Dr. Barrett operates 23 Web sites; co-edits Consumer Health Digest (a free weekly electronic newsletter); and has been a peer-review panelist for several top medical journals. He has written thousands of articles and delivered more than 300 talks at colleges, universities, medical schools, and professional meetings. His 53 books include The Health Robbers: A Close Look at Quackery in America and eight editions of the college textbook Consumer Health: A Guide to Intelligent Decisions. One book he edited, Vitamins and Minerals: Help or Harm?, by Charles Marshall, Ph.D., won the American Medical Writers Association award for best book of 1983 for the general public and became a special publication of Consumer Reports Books. His other classics include Dubious Cancer Treatment, published by the Florida Division of the American Cancer Society; Health Schemes, Scams, and Frauds, published by Consumer Reports Books; The Vitamin Pushers: How the “Health Food” Industry Is Selling America a Bill of Goods, published by Prometheus Books; and Reader’s Guide to “Alternative” Health Methods, published by the American Medical Association. His most recent book, Homeopathy in America: The Ups and Downs of a Medical Heresy, was published in 2019 by Kindle Books. From 2012 through 2016, he served as North American co-editor of the journal Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapy (FACT). His media appearances have included Dateline, the Today Show, Good Morning America, ABC Prime Time, Donahue, CNN, National Public Radio, and more than 200 radio and television talk show interviews.

Since moving to North Carolina in 2007, Dr. Barrett has been swimming competitively and has won 140 state championship events, 40 medals in national events, and 16 medals in international events and has set 19 state records. At the 2012 U.S. Masters Spring Nationals, he and three teammates earned Relay All-American Awards for the fastest times swum in the U.S. in 2012 in the age 75-79 men’s 200 freestyle and 200 medley relay events. During the 2013 season, he won 3 three gold medals at the North Carolina Senior Games, 3 silver medals at the National Senior Games, and became a world champion by winning the age 80-84 men’s 50-meter butterfly event at the Huntsman World Senior Games. In 2014, he won 2 gold, 1 silver, and 2 bronze medals at the U.S. Masters Summer National Championships and 5 gold and 1 silver medal at the North Carolina Senior Games. In 2016, he became certified as an instructor in the U.S. Masters Adult Learn-to-Swim program.

The Center for Inquiry began maintaining the Quackwatch network of Web sites in February 2020 and will receive Dr. Barrett’s research library later this year.

Additional Information

How to Contact Dr. Barrett (Please mention how you found this Web site)

  • E-mail: Click here
  • Snail mail:
    287 Fearrington Post
    Pittsboro, NC 27312 .
  • Telephone: (919) 533-6009

Any Questions?

When time permits, your questions related to consumer health will be answered by e-mail. The most interesting ones will be posted (without the sender’s name) to this Web site. Before sending a question, please search Quackwatch to see whether the topic has been covered! If you prefer to phone, please send an email message first so I can retain your contact information.

This page was revised on March 5, 2020.



Bonesetting, Chiropractic, and Cultism: Appendix C

Appendix C: Number of Chiropractors in Practice ©1963, Samuel Homola, D.C. It is difficult to determine the actual number of practicing chiropractors. Most chiropractic literature refers to “25,000 licensed chiropractors.” An October, 1959, article on chiropractic in McCall’s magazine, for example, stated that there are “30,000 chiropractors.” Not every licensed chiropractor is a practicing chiropractor, …

Appendix C:
Number of Chiropractors in Practice

©1963, Samuel Homola, D.C.

It is difficult to determine the actual number of practicing chiropractors. Most chiropractic literature refers to “25,000 licensed chiropractors.” An October, 1959, article on chiropractic in McCall’s magazine, for example, stated that there are “30,000 chiropractors.” Not every licensed chiropractor is a practicing chiropractor, however. Dividing the conglomeration of chiropractic technics among practicing chiropractors has taken its toll of practitioners as well as its toll of chiropractic colleges. The practice failure among newly-graduated chiropractors is extremely high, partly because of the lack of recognition and reciprocity with other healing arts, and partly because of the severe economic competition between chiropractors adhering to one school of thought or another. One chiropractic publication stated that 54% of all chiropractic graduates fail during the first year of practice [1]

A January, 1960, chiropractic publication stated that there were 30,000 chiropractors practicing in 1930, and that this figure had dwindled to less than 20,000. “At one time or another there have been 88, yes, 88 Chiropractic colleges,” the publication advised. “Today, there are 17 in existence. Our schools are dying, our numbers are decreasing and yet we remain in our ivory towers, ignorant in our bliss, apathetic in our attitudes, refusing to see and to admit that we are a dying profession and worse yet unwilling to do anything about it.” [2]

It is difficult to understand why figures on the number of chiropractic colleges and chiropractic practitioners will differ so markedly from one source to another, or even from the same source from time to time. In trying to determine the actual number of practicing chiropractors, one would probably inquire first of licensing boards in each state. This may not give a correct count, however, since a good number of chiropractors apparently fail to succeed in practice and, as a result, go into other fields of work. Licenses are often maintained in a state by such practitioners, along with those retired. In California in 1958, the state with the largest number of chiropractors, only 54% of more than 4,000 licensed chiropractors were in full-time practice, with some 23% of the total number in part-time practice. [3]

Figures compiled by the Bureau of the Census would probably give the most accurate count of the number of chiropractors.

The 1930 census report stated that there were 11,916 chiropractors designated as “gainful workers.” In 1940, this figure had decreased to 10,629 “employed” chiropractors. In 1950, however, the census reported that there were 13,091 chiropractors in the experienced civilian labor force (the National Chiropractic Association reported that there were more than 20,000 licensed chiropractors). According to prepublication reports released in December of 1962, the 1960 census counted 14,360 chiropractors in the “experienced civilian labor force” (which includes both employed and unemployed practitioners), showing a 9.7% increase over the 1950 figures.

References

1. Nimmo RL. The Receptor. Volume 1, Number 4, 1959.
2. Fountain Head News. Palmer School of Chiropractic, Davenport, Iowa, January, 1960.
3. Chiropractic in California. Los Angeles: Stanford Research Institute and the Haynes Foundation, 1960.

Postscript ||| Table of Contents



Free Newsletter: Consumer Health Digest

Consumer health encompasses all aspects of the marketplace related to the purchase of health products and services. Positively, it involves the facts and understanding that enable people to make wise choices. Negatively, it means avoiding unwise decisions based on deception, misinformation, or other factors. Consumer Health Digest is a weekly e-mail newsletter edited by William …

Consumer health encompasses all aspects of the marketplace related to the purchase of health products and services. Positively, it involves the facts and understanding that enable people to make wise choices. Negatively, it means avoiding unwise decisions based on deception, misinformation, or other factors.

Consumer Health Digest is a weekly e-mail newsletter edited by William M. London, Ed.D., M.P.H, with help from Stephen Barrett, M.D. It summarizes scientific reports; legislative developments; enforcement actions; news reports; Web site evaluations; recommended and nonrecommended books; research tips; and other information relevant to consumer protection and consumer decision-making. It also calls attention to new articles on our Web sites.

  • The chd Info Page tells how to subscribe. Please record your password so you can access your account later. To unsubscribe, access your account or follow the instructions that will be included in each issue.
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Multilevel Marketing Project

Since 1980, I have investigated more than 250 multilevel (MLM) companies that maketed health products. My earlier investigations were done by obtaining distributor kits and analyzing company literature. In 1997, I began examining claims on headquarters Web sites. What You Can Do If you have a distributor kit or other MLM product-related literature, videotapes, or …

Since 1980, I have investigated more than 250 multilevel (MLM) companies that maketed health products. My earlier investigations were done by obtaining distributor kits and analyzing company literature. In 1997, I began examining claims on headquarters Web sites.

What You Can Do

If you have a distributor kit or other MLM product-related literature, videotapes, or audiotapes that you no longer need, please donate them to Quackwatch. My mailing address is Stephen Barrett, MD; 287 Fearrington Post, Pittsboro, NC 27312.  If you would lkike to be reimbursed for the cost of shipping, let me know before you send anything.



FDA Court Actions

Lane Labs Ordered to Stop Illegal Marketing (6/04) PROven Serpentarium Enjoined (3/82) Injunction against Nutrilite (Amway predecessor) (8/51)



Miscellaneous Questionable Methods

Quackwatch receives many questions about methods about which we have little or no information. In many cases, Web sites making claims for these methods are available and experts can be recruited to analyze them. We plan to proceed in three steps: (1) list the methods, (2) develop a detailed description, and (3) seek expert analysis. …

Quackwatch receives many questions about methods about which we have little or no information. In many cases, Web sites making claims for these methods are available and experts can be recruited to analyze them. We plan to proceed in three steps: (1) list the methods, (2) develop a detailed description, and (3) seek expert analysis. Please contact us if:

  • You encounter something are not sure about.
  • You can provide a description or a URL describing a method we have listed.
  • You have expert knowledge of a listed method.
  • You have undergone any of the procedures below and can provide us with a detailed account of your experience.

The methods we are interested in so far are:

**Note: Listing of a method on this page does not necessarily mean there is anything wrong with it. It merely means we have been asked and are seeking information.



License Revocation of Robert B. Vance, D.O. (1981)

In 1980, the Utah Department of Registration charged Robert Bliss Vance, D.O. with 35 instances of unprofessional conduct. In 1981, as noted below, after holding hearings, the department upheld eight of the charges and revoked Vance’s license. The unprofessional conduct included: Applied kinesiology muscle-testing as a sole test to determine food allergies Inappropriately diagnosing hypoglycemia …


In 1980, the Utah Department of Registration charged Robert Bliss Vance, D.O. with 35 instances of unprofessional conduct. In 1981, as noted below, after holding hearings, the department upheld eight of the charges and revoked Vance’s license. The unprofessional conduct included:

  • Applied kinesiology muscle-testing as a sole test to determine food allergies
  • Inappropriately diagnosing hypoglycemia
  • Kirlian photography for “research purposes”
  • Laetrile instead of standard cancer treatment
  • Inappropriate use of chelation therapy to treat atherosclerosis

Vance appealed to state and federal courts but lost. In 1987, when the Texas Medical Board was considering Utah’s action, Vance surrendered his Texas license. In 1996, Texas denied his application for reinstatement. He died in 2017 at the age of 83.


BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF REGISTRATION
STATE OF UTAH

IN THE MATTER OF THE LICENSE
TO PRACTICE AS AN OSTEOPATHIC
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON OF
ROBERT B. VANCE, D.O.
]
]
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FINDINGS OF FACT, CONCLUSIONS OF LAW
AND RECOMMENDED ORDER

Appearances:

Leon A. Halgren for the Division of Registration.
Robert McRae, Attorney for Respondent.

Pursuant to notice duly served by certified mail, this matter cane on regularly for hearing on the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th day of January, 1981 and also on the 2nd day of February, 1981 before the Osteopathic Committee of the State of Utah and the Division of Registration. Evidence was offered and received, and the Osteopathic v, having been advised in the premises, now makes and enters to the Director of the Division of Registration the following Findings of Fact, Conclusions of Law and its Recommended Order based thereon:

F’INDINGS OF F’ACT

1. We find that osteopathic physicians and surgeons should maintain and uphold the sane standards of care as medical doctors in caring for and treating their patients. When a physician assumes primary care of a patient by advising a patient to discontinue medications or instructions from a previous physician, the new physician should do a complete physical examination and record such. The physical examination should include at least examination of the heart, lungs and abdomen. No intravenous solutions should be given without a physical examination (including heart and lungs) being performed. We also find that a physician must be in attendance when intravenous solutions are given unless it is an emergency. We find that Robert B. Vance did not abide by and follow these standards in his treatment of patients and in particular in his care and treatment of James Nickeson.

2. We have had testimony that preventive medicine as practiced by Dr. Vance and his colleagues should be practiced in addition to the basic (orthodox) standards of medicine in the United States. We find that Dr. Vance has not maintained these basic standards in his practice.

3. Inasmuch as Chelation Therapy is not accepted among medical standards as a proper method of treatment for atherosclerosis in the United States, it should not be prescribed as such be a physician in general practice.

4. We find that Laetrile (Amygdalin, B-17) should not be prescribed in lieu of standard accepted medical treatment for a patient suffering from cancer.

5. We find that Robert B. Vance diagnosed hypoglycemia too often without adequately ruling out other diseases or body dysfunctions.

6. We find that in many cases Dr. Vance led many patients into believing that his form of therapy was more beneficial than treatment which is recognized as proper or appropriate in the medical profession.

7. Dr. Vance’s use of Kinesiology (having patient hold arm out, with the resulting dropping of the arm determining food allergies) as the sole test to determine food allergies is totally unfounded.

8. As to the allegations in the petition (referring to doctor placing his hand on top and thinking of various foods, with the referring to the paragraphs of the petition) we make specific findings as to each such allegation as follows:

A. We find the allegations to be true in that Robert B. Vance provided unnecessary and unproven medical treatment for atherosclerosis by giving Chelation therapy.

B. No finding.

C. No finding.

D. No finding.

E. We find the allegation to be true and substantially supported by the evidence.

F. No finding.

G. We find the allegations to be true in that the evidence showed that Robert B. Vance did not do a physical examination; he used iridology, an unaccepted and unproven method of diagnosis, and diagnosed hypothyroidism from a low axillary temperature with disregard for normal laboratory tests.

H. We find the allegations to be true. He charged for a Cronogram (Kirlian Photography) which he testified he was doing for research purposes, without notifying the patient of such fact and admitted its use as a diagnostic tool was of questionable value.

I. We find the allegations to be substantially supported by the evidence.

J. No finding.

K. No finding.

L. No finding.

M. No finding.

N. No finding.

O. No finding.

P. No finding.

Q. No finding.

R. We find the allegations to be substantially supported by the evidence.

S. No finding.

T. No finding.

U. No finding.

V. No finding.

W. No finding.

X. No finding.

Y. No finding.

Z. No finding.

AA. No finding.

BB. No finding.

CC. No finding.

DD. No finding.

EE. No finding.

FF. No finding.

GG. No finding.

HH. We find the allegations to be substantially supported by the evidence.

II. We find the allegations to be true and fully supported by the evidence. In the Nickeson case there was evidence of gross negligence on the part of Dr. Vance. He should not have encouraged the family to have the patient leave the Casper, Wyoming Hospital; the diagnostic process had not been completed. He instituted intravenous therapy in his office before doing a physical examination; in fact, he never did no a physical examination. The patient was treated with questionable therapy in lieu of standard medical treatment. Dr. Vance did not see the patient in excess of five days while the patient, not under the direct control of Robert B. Vance, was receiving daily I.V. therapy. He discontinued the Coumadin therapy without examining the patient’s leg or thrombophlebitis or monitoring clotting times. Mrs. Nickeson, the patient’s mother, purchased oral Laetrile (Amygdalin, B-17) in Dr. Vance’s office from Margaret Smith. We feel that he is responsible for anything that takes place in his office. In general, this case was beyond the expertise of a general practitioner.

In spite of the fact that he has gained a great deal of knowledge in the field of preventative medicine, assuming primary care for a patient such as Mr. Nickeson was beyond the scope of his additional knowledge.

CONCLUSIONS OF LAW

a, the basis of the Findings of Fact the Osteopathic Committee concludes that the Respondent Robert B. Vance is subject to the provisions of Section 58-12-36(15) Utah Code Annotated 1953, as amended and that he has committed acts of sufficient severity amounting to unprofessional conduct as set forth 1n said Section 58-12-36(15) on which to base disciplinary action for revocation o: his license to practice as an Osteopathic Physician and Surgeon in the State of Utah as hereinafter provided.

RECOMMENDED ORDER

The Osteopathic Committee of the State of Utah recommends to the Director of the Division of Registration that the license of the Respondent, Robert B. Vance, as an Osteopathic Physician and Surgeon in the State of Utah be revoked.

Dated this 2nd day of February, 1981.

______________________
Leland D. Shafer, D.O.

______________________
Victoria Greenwood, D.O.

This article was posted on January 20, 2020.




Web Site Evaluation Index

General Articles Signs of a “Quacky” Web Site Fifteen Ways to Spot an Internet Bandit Guideline Issues AMA Guidelines for Medical and Health Information Sites (link to JAMA) HONcode Principles: What Do They Signify? HONcode Violators Untrustworthy Organizations in the Healthfinder Database URAC Violators Web Site Ratings Systems Questioned Links to Highly Recommended Sites American …

General Articles

Guideline Issues

Links to Highly Recommended Sites

Sites Recommended with Reservations

These major sites are mostly reliable but have “blind spots” that damage their credibility. Their reliable parts can be very useful, but some parts should be disregarded or viewed with caution.

  • Arthritis Foundation (avoid information on “complementary” and “alternative” methods)
  • WebMD Health (articles related to “complementary and alternative medicine” are highly misleading)

Nonrecommended Major Sites

Each of these sites provides a huge amount of information, most or all of which promotes unsubstantiated theories and/or methods. They may be useful to researchers seeking descriptions of these theories and methods from their proponents. However, they should be avoided by persons seeking high-quality information on which to base a health-related decision.

Nonrecommended Minor Sites



Significant Journal Reports

The links below lead to summaries or full-text versions of important articles from peer-reviewed scientific journals. Please contact us to suggest articles that should be added to this page. Chiropractic Identity and Practices Gliedt JA. Chiropractic identity, role and future: A survey of North American chiropractic students. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 23:4, 2015. Murphy DR …

The links below lead to summaries or full-text versions of important articles from peer-reviewed scientific journals. Please contact us to suggest articles that should be added to this page.

Chiropractic Identity and Practices

Advertising and Marketing

Chiropractic care, cost and effectiveness

Reliability of chiropractic procedures

Education

Immunization

Spinal manipulation, appropriateness

Spinal manipulation, complications

Spinal manipulation, effectiveness



Mission Statement

Quackwatch, Inc., which was a member of Consumer Federation of America from 1973 through 2003, is a nonprofit corporation whose purpose is to combat health-related frauds, myths, fads, fallacies, and misconduct. Its primary focus is on quackery-related information that is difficult or impossible to get elsewhere. Founded by Dr. Stephen Barrett in 1969 as the …

Quackwatch, Inc., which was a member of Consumer Federation of America from 1973 through 2003, is a nonprofit corporation whose purpose is to combat health-related frauds, myths, fads, fallacies, and misconduct. Its primary focus is on quackery-related information that is difficult or impossible to get elsewhere. Founded by Dr. Stephen Barrett in 1969 as the Lehigh Valley Committee Against Health Fraud, it was incorporated in 1970. In 1997, it assumed its current name and began developing a worldwide network of volunteers and expert advisors. Our activities include:

Web Sites

The Quackwatch Web site was launched in December 1996. Our other sites are:

  • Acupuncture Watch (started 2/05): The skeptical guide to acupuncture history, theories, and practices
  • Autism Watch (7/04): Your scientific guide to autism
  • Cancer Treatment Watch (8/05): Your guide to sensible cancer treatment
  • Casewatch (7/04): Your guide to health fraud- and quackery-related legal matters
  • Chelation Watch (7/04): A skeptical view of chelation therapy
  • Chirobase (10/98): Your skeptical guide to chiropractic history, theories, and practices
  • Credential Watch (2/05): Your guide to health-related education and training
  • Dental Watch (6/02): Your guide to intelligent dental care
  • Device Watch (7/04): Your guide to questionable medical devices
  • Diet Scam Watch (11/04): Your guide to weight-control schemes and ripoffs
  • Homeowatch (11/01): Your skeptical guide to homeopathic history, theories, and practices
  • Infomercial Watch (7/04): A critical view of the health infomercial marketplace
  • Internet Health Pilot (1/02): Your gateway to reliable health information
  • Mental Health Watch (7/04): Your guide to the mental help marketplace
  • MLM Watch (1/99): The skeptical guide to multilevel marketing
  • Naturowatch (6/03): The skeptical guide to naturopathic history, theories, and practices
  • NCCAM Watch (11/05): An antidote to the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  • Nutriwatch (3/00): Your guide to sensible nutrition
  • Pharmwatch (8/05): Your guide to the drug marketplace and lower costs

Dr. Barrett maintains these sites with help from many volunteers.

Service Providers

  • Members of our medical advisory board review articles upon request.
  • The Center for Inquiry provided the updated website design, server resources, and upkeep.
  • Dr. Barrett’s son Daniel Barrett, a software engineer, provides general technical support.
  • OnlyMyEmail provides SPAM protection.

Sources of Income

Founded in 1996 by Dr. Stephen Barrett, Quackwatch has grown into an international network dedicated to investigating and refuting medical frauds, myths, fads, fallacies, and misconduct. The Quackwatch website houses an exhaustive library of information, advice, and news for consumers, activists, media, and medical professionals, relies on science and evidence to address extraordinary claims about so-called “alternative” medical treatments, remedies, and devices.

Quackwatch is now a program of the Center for Inquiry (CFI), an international nonprofit organization which works to foster a secular society based on reason, science, free inquiry, and humanist values. CFI is home to Skeptical Inquirer magazine and the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, which seeks to promote science-based skepticism and an end to pseudoscience wherever it arises.

The total cost of operating all of Quackwatch’s sites is approximately $7,000 per year. Quackwatch, Inc., has no salaried employees. It operates with minimal expense, funded mainly by small individual donations, commissions from sales on other sites to which we refer, and profits from the sale of publications. If its income falls below what is needed for the research, the rest comes out of Dr. Barrett’s pocket. Except for the sales commissions, neither Quackwatch nor Dr. Barrett has any financial tie to any commercial or industrial organization.

These donations will support research, writing, and legal actions that can protect many people from being misled.

This page was revised on February 20, 2020.



The ERSP Complaint Program

In April 2004, the Electronic Retailing Association (ERA) and the National Advertising Review Council (NARC) announced that they had launched a program to counter the dissemination of unsubstantiated and false advertising claims. The new Electronic Retailing Self-Regulation Program (ERSP) will be funded by the ERA but administered by the NARC. The FTC expressed support for …

In April 2004, the Electronic Retailing Association (ERA) and the National Advertising Review Council (NARC) announced that they had launched a program to counter the dissemination of unsubstantiated and false advertising claims. The new Electronic Retailing Self-Regulation Program (ERSP) will be funded by the ERA but administered by the NARC. The FTC expressed support for the program, which was set up to work like this:

  • Anyone with a complaint about a false or unsubstantiated infomercial or direct-response ad could fill out the complaint form at the Savvy Shopper Web site.
  • The complaint would go to the attorney at the NARC for review.
  • The marketer would be notified and given 15 days to provide substantiation.
  • Once the marketer provided the materials, the independent attorney had no longer than 45 days to review the materials and render a decision. Thus the process should be completed within 60 days.
  • If the claims and campaign were found to be misleading, the marketer would be asked to stop them.
  • If the false ads were not stopped, the matter would be referred to the FTC and reports, press releases and letters would be issued to notify the media and cable stations of the review’s findings.
  • However, if the ad was found to be substantiated, no action would be taken.

The ERAwas the trade association for major companies who used electronic media to advertise goods and services to the public. Its membership was involved in multi-channel electronic marketing that included infomercials and short-form commercials, live shopping channels, the Internet, radio, and convergence. (Convergence marketing involves integration of online and offline media.) The Savvy Shopper site and complaint form were online for several years without with little or no public attention. However, increased publicity and the NARC involvement were expected to have an impact.

The NARC was formed in 1971 by the Association of National Advertisers, Inc., the American Association of Advertising Agencies, Inc., the American Advertising Federation, Inc., and the Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB), Inc. Its purpose is to foster truth and accuracy in national advertising through voluntary self-regulation. The NARC establishes the policies and procedures for the CBBB’s National Advertising Division (NAD), which has been the investigative arm of NARC’s self-regulation program since its inception. The ERSP was originally run by attorney Peter Marinello of NARC and conducted its investigations independently from NAD.

The ERSP program evaluated s the truth and accuracy of “core” claims of the direct response advertisements. It was not set up to deal with financial concerns such as refunds and unauthorized charges.

Between April 2004 and January 2007, the ERSP monitored more than 4,200 advertisements for more than 1,900 products offered through direct response campaigns. By 2007, it had published 125 decisions. In 119 of the cases, the challenged ads were either modified or discontinued. The ERSP complained to the FTC about infomercials for 13 health-related products: 7 Day Miracle Cleanse, AbGONE, Centro Natural de Salud, Hepatol Complex, HoodiaLife, Nexiderm-SP Anti-Wrinkle Formula, Phenterprin HCL, Renuva Anti-Aging System, Rev XP, Sea Vegg Nutritional Supplement, Super Prostate Formula, Ultimate HGH, and Zantrex-3.

In January 2017, the ESRP reported that it had tracked 15,800 informercials., but what happened as a result was not clearly indicated.

The ERSP performed a valuable service, but in in June 2018, the Electronic Retailing Association announced that its dues receipts could no longer meet its expenses and the organization shut down.



Dr. Barrett’s Books and Textbook Chapters

Dr. Barrett’s Books and Textbook Chapters Coauthored Year Title and Publisher 1976 The Health Robbers: How To Protect Your Money And Your Life George F. Stickley Co. 1980 Consumer Health: A Guide to Intelligent Decisions, 2nd Edition C.V. Mosby Co. The Health Robbers, 2nd edition George F. Stickley Co. The Tooth Robbers: A Pro-Fluoridation Handbook …

Dr. Barrett’s Books and Textbook Chapters

Coauthored

Year Title and Publisher
1976 The Health Robbers: How To Protect Your Money And Your Life
George F. Stickley Co.
1980 Consumer Health: A Guide to Intelligent Decisions, 2nd Edition
C.V. Mosby Co.
The Health Robbers, 2nd edition
George F. Stickley Co.
The Tooth Robbers: A Pro-Fluoridation Handbook
George F. Stickley Co.
1981 Vitamins and “Health” Foods: The Great American Hustle
George F. Stickley Co.
1982 Shopping for Health Care
C.V. Mosby Co.
1985 Consumer Health, 3rd Edition
Times Mirror/Mosby
1989 Consumer Health, 4th Edition
Times Mirror/Mosby
1990 Health Schemes, Scams, and Frauds
Consumer Reports Books.
1991 Your Guide to Good Nutrition
Prometheus Books
1993 Consumer Health, 5th Edition
Mosby­Year Book
Reader’s Guide to “Alternative” Health Methods
American Medical Association.
The Health Robbers: A Close Look at Quackery in America.
Prometheus Books
1994 The Vitamin Pushers: How the “Health Food” Industry Is Selling America a Bill of Goods.
Prometheus Books
1997 Consumer Health, 6th Edition. Brown & Benchmark
1998 Chemical Sensitivity: The Truth about Environmental Illness
Prometheus Books

Edited or Coedited

Year Title and Publisher
1982 Dear Dr. Stare: What Should I Eat?, by Fredrick J. Stare, M.D., and Virginia Aronson, R.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
Your Guide to Urology, by Charles D. Saunders, M.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
Your Guide to Mental Help, by John P. Callan, M.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
Your Guide to Physical Fitness, by Ellington Darden, Ph.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
Life After 50: Your Guide to Health and Happiness, by Joseph D. Alter, M.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
1983 Vitamins and Minerals: Help or Harm?, by Charles W. Marshall, Ph.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
Inside Psychotherapy-The Patient’s Handbook, by Ronald W. Pies, M.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
Your Basic Guide to Nutrition, by Fredrick J. Stare, M.D., and Virginia Aronson, R.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
1984 Your Guide to Foot Care, by Marvin Sandler, D.P.M.
George F. Stickley Co.
Women Under the Knife: A Gynecologist’s Report on Hazardous Medicine, by Herbert H. Keyser, M.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
A Smoking Gun: How the Tobacco Companies Get Away with Murder, by Elizabeth M. Whelan, Sc.D., M.P.H.
George F. Stickley Co.
Your Guide to Heart Care, by Albert G. Goldin, M.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
1985 Your Guide to Ear, Nose and Throat Problems, by Michael Morelock, M.D.
George F. Stickley Co.
The Smoke-Free Workplace, by William Weis, Ph.D., and Bruce Miller.
Prometheus Books
1990 Nutrition 90/91, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
Dushkin Publishing Group
1991 Dubious Cancer Treatment.
American Cancer Society, Florida Division
Nutrition 91/92, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
Dushkin Publishing Group
1992 Nutrition 92/93, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
Dushkin Publishing Group
A Consumer’s Guide to “Alternative Medicine,” by Kurt Butler.
Prometheus Books.
Panic in the Pantry, by Elizabeth M. Whelan, Sc.D., M.P.H., and Fredrick J. Stare, M.D., Ph.D.
Prometheus Books
 1993 Mystical Diets, by Jack Raso, M.S., R.D.
Prometheus Books
 1994 Nutrition 94/95, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
Dushkin Publishing Group
“Alternative” Healthcare, by Jack Raso, M.S., R.D.
Prometheus Books
1995 Nutrition 95/96, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
Dushkin Publishing Group
Chiropractic: The Victim’s Perspective, by George J. Magner, III,
Prometheus Books
1996 Nutrition 96/97, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
Brown & Benchmark
1997 Nutrition 97/98, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
Brown & Benchmark
1998 Nutrition 98/99, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
McGraw-Hill
1999 Nutrition 99/00, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
McGraw-Hill
Inside Chiropractic: A Patient’s Guide, by Samuel Homola, D.C.
Prometheus Books
2000 Nutrition 00/01, with Charlotte C. Cook-Fuller, Ph.D.
McGraw-Hill

Book Chapters

Year Title and Publisher
1988 Choosing Health Care Services and Insurance. In Core Concepts in Health, 5th Edition, Mayfield Publishing Company
Nutrition Facts and Fallacies. In Core Concepts in Health, 5th Edition, Mayfield Publishing Company
1990 The Health-care System, In Core Concepts in Health, 6th Edition, Mayfield Publishing Company,
1993 Fads, Frauds, and Quackery. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th Edition. Lea & Febiger,
The Health-care System, In Core Concepts in Health, 7th Edition, Mayfield Publishing Company,
1996 Alternative” Health Practices and Quackery. In The Encyclopedia of the Paranormal. Prometheus Books,
Questionable Cancer Therapies. In Cancer Medicine, 4th Edition, Williams & Wilkins,
1998 “Alternative” Methods: More Hype Than Hope. In Issues in Alternative Medicine. Humana Press,
Fads, Frauds, and Quackery. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th Edition. Williams & Wilkins,
“Alternative” Nutrition Therapies. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th Edition. Williams & Wilkins,


Publicly Held Companies

WhoWhere for EDGAR Filings   If you encounter a web site offering questionable products or services for pets or other animals, please send us the URL . If you encounter a questionable advertisement or other relevant printed material, please mail a copy to Stephen Barrett, M.D., P.O. Box 1747, Allentown, PA 18105. We are organizing a Task …

WhoWhere for EDGAR Filings

 

  • If you encounter a web site offering questionable products or services for pets or other animals, please send us the URL .
  • If you encounter a questionable advertisement or other relevant printed material, please mail a copy to Stephen Barrett, M.D., P.O. Box 1747, Allentown, PA 18105.
  • We are organizing a Task Force on Animal Quackery. If you would like to volunteer either as an expert or a research assistant, please contact us.


The Legacies of Edgar Cayce

Edgar Cayce (1877-1945), dubbed the “Sleeping Prophet” by biographer Jess Stern [1], was a precursor of “New Age” trance channeling, giving well over 14,000 “psychic readings” between 1910 and his death. A poorly educated photographer and Sunday-school teacher with no medical training whatsoever, Cayce gained nationwide renown for diagnosing illnesses and prescribing dietary and other …

Edgar Cayce (1877-1945), dubbed the “Sleeping Prophet” by biographer Jess Stern [1], was a precursor of “New Age” trance channeling, giving well over 14,000 “psychic readings” between 1910 and his death. A poorly educated photographer and Sunday-school teacher with no medical training whatsoever, Cayce gained nationwide renown for diagnosing illnesses and prescribing dietary and other remedies while in a self-induced hypnotic state. His current promoters claim:

He could see into the future and the past . . . describe present far-off events as they were happening; and . . . astound doctors with his x-ray vision of the human body. His readings-his words while in this state-were carefully transcribed while they were spoken. He is undoubtedly the most documented psychic who ever lived. And the accuracy of his predictions has been put at well over ninety percent! At his death, he left a legacy of thousands of case histories that science is still at a loss to explain completely.

Cayce’s career as a clairvoyant began in 1901 after a hypnotic session with a “magnetic healer.” In a trance, Cayce supposedly diagnosed the source of — and prescribed a cure for — his own persistent case of laryngitis. According to Mysteries of Mind, Space & Time — The Unexplained (1992), Cayce similarly helped the hypnotist, who proposed that they use this method to cure others. When Cayce refused, his laryngitis recurred. Interpreting the recurrence as a divine gesture, he formed a partnership with the hypnotist. Mysteries states that whenever Cayce decided to quit giving “readings,” he lost his voice or developed a severe headache. As news of the “healings” spread, thousands sought his help. Cayce offered guidance both to persons in attendance and to distant correspondents; he supposedly needed only the person’s name and address. Allegedly drawing upon a “cosmic hall of records,” Cayce revealed “facts” about mythical civilizations, astrological influences, “past lives,” and future events. In The Outer Limits of Edgar Cayce’s Power (1971), Cayce’s sons stated that the transcripts of the readings comprise over fifty thousand single-spaced typewritten pages and more than ten million words.

Cayce’s Legacies

Five organizations have grown up around Cayce’s work. The headquarters of the Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.R.E.), which occupies an entire city block in Virginia Beach, is home to Atlantic University, the Cayce/Reilly School of Massotherapy, the Edgar Cayce Foundation, the Health and Rejuvenation Center, and A.R.E., Inc.

According to its 1993-94 catalog, Atlantic University opened in 1930, closed two years later, and reopened in 1985. Although not accredited, it awards a master of arts degree in “transpersonal studies”-a term described in the catalog as “an interdisciplinary field which includes psychology, philosophy, sociology, literature, religion, and science.” The courses cover astrology, dream work, I Ching, Jungian psychology, palmistry, psychometry, tarot, and processes to “balance and transform” human “energies.” Students may pursue the master’s degree largely by correspondence.

The Reilly School, which operates under the auspices of the university, was founded in 1931 and reopened in 1986. Certified by the Commonwealth of Virginia, the school offers a 600-hour diploma program in massage therapy. The program includes instruction in shiatsu, foot reflexology, hydrotherapy, diet, and preventive healthcare based on the Cayce readings. The school also offers workshops on biofeedback and Cayce home remedies.

The Edgar Cayce Foundation, chartered in 1948, was formed to preserve the Cayce readings and supporting documentation.

The A.R.E., which Cayce’s son Hugh Lynn Cayce co-founded in 1931, functions as an eclectic “New Age” nerve center, from which emanates a steady flow of seminars and publications. A 1991 brochure describes it as “a living network of people who are finding a deeper meaning in life through the psychic work of Edgar Cayce.” In 1976, Hugh Lynn became board chairman and his son, Charles Thomas Cayce, became president. The A.R.E. headquarters, a modern three-story building in Virginia Beach, includes a visitor/conference center, a library, and the A.R.E. bookstore. It receives more than forty thousand visitors and conference attendees annually. With more than fifty thousand volumes, the library has one of the world’s largest collections of parapsychological and metaphysical literature.

Standard A.R.E. membership costs $30 per year, but nine-month “introductory” memberships are available for $15 or $20. Members receive the bimonthly magazine Venture Inward and can borrow books from the A.R.E. Library, join a study group, and attend or send their children to A.R.E.’s summer camp in the Appalachian foothills. They are also entitled to referrals to over four hundred practitioners who use the Cayce approach. In September 1992, an A.R.E. representative informed me that membership was approximately 39,000, plus about a thousand subscribers.

Members are also invited to participate in “home research projects,” in which they perform activities pertaining to such matters as astrology and numerology and report the results. Participation is free for some projects, but others cost from $17 to about $30 per person. A 1991 issue of the Home Research Project bulletin states: “The main commitment of A.R.E. as a research organization is to encourage you to test concepts in the Cayce readings and to look for-and expect-results.” Study groups center on such concerns as diet, the laws of reincarnation (karma), metaphysical dream interpretation, and the spiritual legacies of ancient Egypt and Atlantis. According to an A.R.E. letter, “Thousands gather together in small groups all over the country to study and apply spiritual principles in daily living.” A.R.E. mailings to prospective members state: “There is no human problem for which the Cayce predictions do not offer hope.” A.R.E. “research reports,” based on the Cayce readings, are available on a wide variety of topics, including scar removal, warts, arthritis, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis.

Each year, A.R.E. holds dozens of conferences in Virginia Beach and various other cities. They have covered such subjects as angels, astrology (“the key to self-discovery”), chakra healing, “intuitive healing,” reincarnation, UFOs, weight control, and “holistic” financial management. A flyer for a 1992 “psychic training” seminar states: “You are already psychic. . . . You only need to become aware of it!”

Many of Cayce’s remedies are sold through the mail by Home Health Products, Inc., also in Virginia Beach. Home Health specializes in “natural products for a holistic approach to health care” and bills itself as an “official supplier of Edgar Cayce products for health, beauty, and wellness.” Its own products include skin conditioners, laxatives, and a few supplements, but its catalog also offers supplements ma



QVC Cable Network and Maker of Cold-eeze Zinc Lozenges Agree to Settle FTC Charges

This page is on the Web site of Quackwatch, not the FTC. For release: November 23, 1999 Must Possess Competent and Reliable Evidence before Advertising that Product Prevents Colds or Relieves Allergy Symptoms QVC, Inc. and the Quigley Corporation have agreed to settle Federal Trade Commission charges that the companies made unsubstantiated claims that Cold-Eezer or …

This page is on the Web site of Quackwatch, not the FTC.

For release: November 23, 1999

Must Possess Competent and Reliable Evidence before Advertising
that Product Prevents Colds or Relieves Allergy Symptoms

QVC, Inc. and the Quigley Corporation have agreed to settle Federal Trade Commission charges that the companies made unsubstantiated claims that Cold-Eezer or Cold-Eeze brand zinc lozenges can prevent colds and alleviate allergy symptoms. Quigley also settled charges that it made unsubstantiated claims in advertisements for Kids-Eeze Bubble-Gum regarding the product’s ability to reduce the severity of cold symptoms in children.

QVC is a national cable “home shopping” network, and Quigley is the manufacturer of Cold-Eeze and Kids-Eeze. Many of the challenged claims for Cold-Eeze appeared on QVC programming, and were made both by QVC show hosts and by Quigley representatives appearing on QVC. The FTC alleged that both companies made unsubstantiated claims that Cold-Eeze can: prevent colds; relieve the symptoms of allergies and hay fever; reduce the risk of contracting pneumonia; and reduce the severity of cold symptoms in children. In addition, according to the FTC complaint against Quigley, the company made unsubstantiated Cold-Eeze claims in radio advertising and on the Internet, and made unsubstantiated claims on the Internet that Kids-Eeze can reduce the severity of cold symptoms in children.

“With the cold and flu season fast approaching, many consumers are looking for products to help them stay healthy or feel better,” said Jodie Bernstein, Director of the FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection. “These settlements will ensure that consumers are no longer being misled by unsubstantiated claims about these products. And they also will help remind marketers of their responsibility to back up all advertising promises.”

Last year, the FTC issued an Advertising Guide for Dietary Supplements. The Guide states that claims for dietary supplements must be presented truthfully and there must be adequate support for advertising claims. The Guide is available on the FTC’s website.

Quigley is based in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, and QVC is based in West Chester, Pennsylvania.

In separate consent agreements announced today for public comment, Quigley and QVC agreed not to make the challenged claims for these products, or for any food, drug, or dietary supplement, unless they have competent and reliable scientific evidence to support the claims. The proposed consent agreement with Quigley would also prohibit that company from making any claim that any food, drug or dietary supplement can or will cure, treat, or prevent disease, or will have any effect on the structure or function of the human body, unless it has competent and reliable scientific evidence to substantiate the claim. The proposed QVC settlement would prohibit it from making any claim that any dietary supplement can or will cure, treat, or prevent disease, or will have any effect on the structure or function of the human body, without having competent and reliable scientific evidence to substantiate the claim.

The proposed consent agreements would permit the respondents to make certain claims permitted by the Food and Drug Administration.

The agreements also contain various reporting and recordkeeping provisions that would assist the FTC in monitoring the respondents’ compliance.

The Commission vote to accept the proposed consent agreements for public comment with Quigley Corporation was 3-1 with Commissioner Sheila F. Anthony issuing a separate statement in which she expressed her view “that the consent in this matter does not adequately address Quigley Corporation’s conduct with respect to its marketing of the Kids-Eeze product.” The Commission vote to accept the proposed consent agreements for public comment with QVC was 4-0. An announcement regarding the proposed consent agreements will be published in the Federal Register shortly, and will be subject to public comment for 60 days, after which the Commission will decide whether to make it final. Comments should be addressed to the FTC, Office of the Secretary, 600 Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20580.


NOTE: A consent agreement is for settlement purposes only and does not constitute an admission of a law violation. When the Commission issues a consent order on a final basis, it carries the force of law with respect to future actions. Each violation of such an order may result in a civil penalty of $11,000.

Copies of the complaint, the proposed consent, and other documents associated with this matter are available from the FTC’s web site and also from the FTC’s Consumer Response Center, Room 130, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20580; 202-382-4357; TTY for the hearing impaired 202-326-2502. To find out the latest news as it is announced, call the FTC NewsPhone recording at 202-326-2710.

MEDIA CONTACT:
Brenda Mack
Office of Public Affairs
202-326-2182
STAFF CONTACT:
Daniel Kaufman and Michelle Rusk
Bureau of Consumer Protection
202-326-2888 or 202-326-3148

(FTC File No. 982 3152)



NCAHF/NCRHI Board and Membership Meetings

Following the conference on Science Meets “Alternative Medicine,” The National Council for Reliable Health Information will hold two meetings: Board of Directors Dinner Meeting Time: 6 PM, Sunday, Feb. 28, 1999 Place: Warwick Hotel, 1701 Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pa. For hotel room reservations: Call (215) 735-6000 or fax (215) 790-7766. Directors who plan to attend should notify …

Following the conference on Science Meets “Alternative Medicine,” The National Council for Reliable Health Information will hold two meetings:

Board of Directors Dinner Meeting

  • Time: 6 PM, Sunday, Feb. 28, 1999
  • Place: Warwick Hotel, 1701 Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
  • For hotel room reservations: Call (215) 735-6000 or fax (215) 790-7766.
  • Directors who plan to attend should notify John H. Renner MD. President, NCRHI at drrenner@msn.com, call (816 )228-4595 , or fax to (816)228-4995 to discuss any agenda items and to make dinner reservations.

General Membership Meeting

  • Time: 9 AM, Monday March 1, 1999
  • Place: Warwick Hotel, 1701 Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
  • For hotel room reservations: Call (215) 735-6000 or fax (215) 790-7766.
  • Members who plan to attend should contact Dr. Renner discuss potential agenda items and to make luncheon reservations.
  • Stephen Barrett, M.D.,will be one of the speakers at the membership meeting.


Iowa Regional Health Care Anti-fraud Association 1997 Annual Workshop

August 27 – 28, 1997 Savery Hotel and Spa 401 Locust Des Moines, IA 50309 The Iowa Regional Health Care Anti-fraud Association (I.R.H.C.A.A.) is a non-profit organization of members from law enforcement, professional licensing boards, prosecutors, and health care carriers. The group was established in 1989 to develop an effective network to detect and prevent …

August 27 – 28, 1997

Savery Hotel and Spa

401 Locust

Des Moines, IA 50309

The Iowa Regional Health Care Anti-fraud Association (I.R.H.C.A.A.) is a non-profit organization of members from law enforcement, professional licensing boards, prosecutors, and health care carriers. The group was established in 1989 to develop an effective network to detect and prevent health care fraud. Educational meetings are held bi-monthly with a two-day workshop held annually. Through the efforts of our group to educate both investigators and prosecutors, health care fraud cases are being successfully prosecuted routinely at both the state and federal levels.
Who Should Attend
  • Certified Fraud Examiners
  • Fraud Investigators
  • Prosecuting Attorneys
  • Medical and Clinical Auditors
  • NursesLaw Enforcement Personnel
  • Internal and external auditors
  • Persons who seek to increase their knowledge about how to respond to allegations of fraud

How You Can Benefit

  • Reduce your organization’s exposure to fraud losses
  • Network with other professionals and exchange ideas
  • Learn how significant fraud schemes were detected, investigated, and resolved
  • Participate in thought-provoking discussions of challenging fraud issues
  • Professional continuing education credit is available

What You Will Learn

  • The most current fraud schemes which may be affecting your organization
  • Effective use of civil recovery actions
  • How networking can make you more effective
  • Fraud prosecution techniques
  • How to organize a fraud case
  • Use of expert witnesses
  • Current health care fraud scams
  • Fraud investigation techniques
  • Evidence handling

Speakers

Gill Beck JD is an Assistant United States Attorney in Greensboro, North Carolina responsible for civil litigation, with special emphasis on affirmative civil enforcement, health care, and forfeiture involving the United States. He was previously in private practice and has served as a litigation attorney for the U.S. Army. He graduated from Duke University College of Law with high honors and was the Senior Editor of Law and Contemporary Problems. He is the author of The Shareholder’s Derivative-Claim Exception to the Attorney-Client Privilege, Law and Contemp. Probs. summer 1985 at 199.
Harriet P. Bicksler is the Manager of the Federal Employees Program (FEP) Anti-Fraud Unit. FEP is the largest private health insurance contract in the nation. Harriet began her career with the Federal Employee Program in 1974 as a medical analyst. Her prior experience includes managing the Cost Containment area until the new Anti-Fraud unit was created. Harriette’s accomplishments include developing identification, investigation, and reporting systems for FEP. Harriette graduated from Presbyterian Hospital School of Nursing and has worked as a registered nurse.
Charles DuVall, DC functioned as a consultant to the Pentagon, FDA, Department of Health and Human Service, Justice Department, International Associations of Special Investigation Units, National Insurance Crime Bureau, the National Health Care Anti-Fraud Association and others. He has developed and implemented training programs to train other physicians and lay investigators in chiropractic and allopathic methods as they apply to medical necessity guidelines. Dr. DuVall is the President of the National Association for Chiropractic Medicine and serves as an independent chiropractic/medical consultant in the USA and Canada. He is certified as an expert witness in 14 states.
Richard Glaser, JD is the Chief of the Criminal Division for the United States Attorney’s Office in Greensboro, North Carolina. He also serves as the Health Care Fraud Coordinator and Abortion Violence Coordinator. He is responsible for supervision 12 AUSAs; works closely with all federal agents and law enforcement offices, coordinates the grand jury each month, and prosecutes and maintains a normal case load while serving as the lead evaluator of the Department of Justice. In 1996 he received the Department of Justice Director’s Award for Superior Performance, the Drug Enforcement Agency’s Certificate of Appreciation, and the FBI Labscam Certificate of Appreciation. He has a Masters of Public Policy from Duke University and attended West Virginia University School of Law.
Tom Harkin, JD is a United States Senator and is originally from Iowa. He has a long standing interest in health care issues and health care fraud. He graduated from Catholic University Law School and has served on the Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Commission, the Appropriations Commission, the Labor and Human Resources Commission, and the Small Business Commission.
David Ignatius is a senior consultant for FEP investigations at the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association in Washington, D.C. David served on the Tustin Police Department in Orange County, California for 9 years and an investigator and sergeant. He also served 7 years as a Major Fraud Investigator for the Orange County District Attorney before becoming a senior investigator for Blue Cross of California. He has a BA in Business Administration from Redlands California University. He has been an advisor on Health Care Fraud for BCBS News, appearing on 48 Hours and Eye to Eye with Connie Chung. He is a member of the Blue Cross Blue Shield National Anti-Fraud Advisory Board.
Lynwood Lary, has completed supervisory certification from the California commission of Peace Officer Standards and Training. He serves as an Attorney General Investigator Supervisor for the California Department of Justice, Bureau of Medi-Cal Fraud where he directs a team of investigators performing criminal investigations of provider fraud. He received a Bachelor of Science in accounting from San Diego State University. Mr. Lary is certified as an expert witness and provides training to Department of Health and Human Services auditors and surveyors in the identification and reporting of fraud allegations. He is an Investigator Academy Instructor in Pharmacy case investigations.
Ed LeFaivre, Investigator for the Department of Health and Human Services He participated with the US Attorney’s Office in the LabCorp of America and other laboratory investigations of billings for unnecessary, unauthorized blood tests. These Federal Labscam investigations identified over 700 million dollars in criminal and civil recoveries.
John Renner, MD is a family physician educator and consumer health information advocate. He is founder and president of Consumer Health Information Research Institute and a Clinical Professor of Family Medicine at the University of Missouri School of Medicine. Dr. Renner is an Adjunct Professor of Preventive Medicine at the University of Kansas School of Medicine. Dr. Renner is the editor or author of seven books. He has testified before Congress and several state legislative hearings on health fraud, serves on the board of directors of the National Council Against Health Fraud, Inc. and has been consultant to the FDA.
Sgt. Ritch Wagner is a Nebraska State Police Officer Specializing in drug diversion cases. He has 20 years experience in Investigative Services and currently supervises three criminal investigators while carrying a full investigative load. Sgt. Wagner developed the training curriculum on diversion investigations, and teaches advanced narcotics training throughout the United States. A co-author of Department of Health legislation, he also has served as a grant coordinator for Bureau of Justice pharmaceutical drug diversion grants, and is the coordinator for State Patrol involvement in multi-agency federal investigations of health care fraud.

Workshop Topics

Combating Health Care Fraud, the Unrelenting Battle
In his first-day opening remarks, U.S. Senator Tom Harkin will reveal the findings in the General Accounting Office’s audit of health care billing and discuss the efforts his office has undertaken to curb fraud, waste and abuse in of health care spending.
LabCorp Laboratory Fraud
On November 21, 1996, the United States Attorneys Offices of seven states and the Criminal Divisions of the Department of Justice announced that Laboratory Corporation America Holdings (LabCorp) agreed to pay $182 million to resolve civil allegations associated with submitting false claims for medically unnecessary lab tests. Attend an “autopsy of a fraud case” and learn how this fraud was discovered, how a national task force was created, how seasoned investigators identified what doctors and witnesses were needed, and how evidence was handled during the two year investigation. Topics will include what steps the investigation, prosecution and civil team took as we dissect the case. But bringing offenders to isn’t all that’s needed. This case will restore millions of dollars to federal and state health care programs, and provides an antidote for loss through the use of parallel proceedings.
Fraudulent Cancer Treatment Billings
The claim may say that the patient received inpatient chemotherapy treatments. But in reality, the “patient” stays in a hotel, takes a bus into a clinic in another country for unproven therapies, and a billing service collects the health care payment in a post office box. Find out how unscrupulous providers may disguise non-payable experimental or quack cancer treatments rendered in an office as inpatient chemotherapy. Learn who they are and how to detect chelation therapy, how fear is used to swindle the public, the growth of health frauds and unproven therapies, and how one dedicated professional teaches patients and the public on how to discern health fraud and abuse.
Health Care Fraud Trends
In the fast pace of medical technology, medicine and methods to improve health are the only areas changing. Health care fraud trends change constantly in every facet of the health care spectrum. Learn from a dedicated professional what the latest “scams” are in the industry, how to detect them and how to analyze, implement, and monitor corrective action.
Chiropractic Billing Fraud
This session will feature an overview of chiropractic billing and will spotlight potential problem areas, including diagnosis changing and pediatric billings on chiropractic services claims. Follow the presenter through undercover investigations which were televised by 60 Minutes. With the new CPT ’97 codes that have been released there are five new codes. Learn how to zero in and detect problems associated with health care fraud and over-utilization of chiropractic treatments.
Prescription for Health Care Fraud
A panel of “professionals” will present how they illegally obtained prescription drugs and how they were caught. Learn from a twenty -year law enforcement veteran how to investigate cases of pharmacy diversion fraud. But the cost isn’t just the prescriptions, it is the medical bills as well. So even programs which do not cover prescription items may be vulnerable to pharmacy fraud. Learn from the special team entrusted with Federal Employees Benefits how they successfully tracked and packaged drug diversion cases of health care fraud.
Testing for Kickbacks
In a clever sting operation, one agency set up an undercover medical clinic and found out that who came calling were providers offering kickbacks for the referral of Medicaid patients. Solicitations were video and audio taped as evidence. Learn from the supervising investigator how to catch a thief. In this session you will learn how the team created the undercover operation, how Labtest was organized, and how the undercover investigation resulted in the arrest and convictions of suspects offering the kickbacks.
Nursing Continuing Education Credits
This workshop is for RNs and LPNs employed in the health insurance industry, medical offices.
The objective of this workshop is to:
Increase your awareness of the many forms of fraud in the medical field,
Increase knowledge of investigative techniques
Increase knowledge of prosecution methods
Describe parallel litigation
Explain laboratory billing fraud
Describe cancer treatment billing fraud
Point out emerging health care fraud trends, and
Describe chiropractic billing fraud schemes.
This course has been approved for 1.25 CEUs under Provider # 22. The registration fee includes the $5.00 processing charge. Call Teresa Clark at 237-6582 for questions.
Legal Continuing Education Credits
Sessions may qualify for credit for continuing legal education. An application is being made and approval is pending.
Certified Fraud Examiners Continuing Education Credits
The course qualifies for continuing education credit for Certified Fraud Examiners.
Hotel Information
Savery Hotel and Spa
401 Locust Street
Des Moines, IA 50309
515-244-2151
The Savery Hotel and Spa is conveniently located in the center of Des Moines Downtown Development with easy access to Intestate 235. There is a free airport shuttle and it is minutes away from shopping malls, movie theaters, local attractions, and restaurants.
A block of special guest rooms has been reserved for this workshop at the special rate of $69.00 single, $75.00 double. To reserve a room, you may call 1-800-798-2151 for room reservations and indicate that you are registering for the IRHCAA annual fraud workshop to receive this special rate.
Conference dress code is business casual

Schedule

Wednesday 8/27/97
8:00 Registration
8:30 – 9:00 Combating Health Care Fraud, A Senator’s Perspective
United States Senator Tom Harkin (requested)
9:00-11:30 Chiropractic Billing Fraud
Charles S. DuVall, D.C.
11:30-1:00 lunch served at hotel (included in registration)
1:00- 2:00 Health Care Fraud Trends
Charles S. DuVall, D.C.
2:00-2:15 break
2:15- 4:30 Pharmacy and Medical Fraud/Pharmacy Diversion Cases
Dave Ignatius and Harriet Bicksler
Sgt. Ritch Wagner and offender Panel
4:30-7:00 Hospitality Suite
Thursday 8/28/97
8:00 Continental breakfast
8:30-9:30 Fraudulent Cancer Treatment Billing
John Renner, MD
9:30-11:45 Testing for Thieves – Labtest Undercover Sting Operation
Lynwood Lary
11:45-1:00 Lunch
1:00:-4:30 Investigating the LabCorp of America health care fraud
Ed LeFaivre
Criminal Prosecution of Laboratory Billing Fraud From Investigation Report to Jury Verdict
Richard Glasser, JD
Successful Civil Remedies Using Parallel Proceedings in Laboratory Billing Fraud
Gill Beck, JD
4:30 – 4:45 Wrap Up, Closing Remarks
Evaluations, Hand out continuing education certificates.

Registration Form

The cost of the workshop is $50.00 per person. Partial day discounts are not available.
Complete the following form and return to:
I.R.H.C.A.A
Station 50
636 Grand Ave
Des Moines, IA 50309
(515) 245-4779
Name: _____________________________________________________
Title: ______________________________________________________
Firm/Agency ________________________________________________
Address: ___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
Phone: ________________________________________
E-mail: ________________________________________
Social Security # _____ ____ _________________
(for Continuing Education Credit where applicable)
Please enclose the registration fee of $50.00 per person.
Refund Policy: Full refunds will be given for cancellations received prior to August 18, 1997.


Publications Monthly Specials and Clearance Items

Each month, Quackwatch will mark down one or more of the books its sells by 25% or more from list price. Books LYING FOR FUN AND PROFIT: THE TRUTH ABOUT THE MEDIA (2000) [NEW] Kurt Butler reveals how talk shows and other media outlets promote quackery without the slightest concern about whether or not they harm …

Each month, Quackwatch will mark down one or more of the books its sells by 25% or more from list price.

Books
LYING FOR FUN AND PROFIT: THE TRUTH ABOUT THE MEDIA (2000) [NEW]
Kurt Butler reveals how talk shows and other media outlets promote quackery without the slightest concern about whether or not they harm their audience. He also describes his many efforts to counter the problem. Softcover, 310 pages. $13.00 [List price $19.95]
THE HONEST HERBAL (1999)
Fourth edition of this referenced analysis covers about 120 herbs and related substances, with each in a separate chapter. By Varro E. Tyler, Ph.D., a leading expert on pharmacognosy. Hardcover, 460 pages, $37.00 [List price $54.95]. Softcover $17 [List price $24.95)

HERBS OF CHOICE (1999)
Second edition of Tyler’s guide to the therapeutic use of herbs, arranged by problem. Paperback, 297 pages, $15.00 [List $19.95]
HERBS OF CHOICE (1994) [CLEARANCE]
First edition of Tyler’s guide to the therapeutic use of herbs. Softcover, 225 pages, $9 (one copy left).
POPULAR NUTRITION PRACTICES: A SCIENTIFIC APPRAISAL (1986)
Outstanding referenced analysis of 100 topics of recent concern. By Jack Yetiv, M.D., Ph.D. Softcover, 318 pages., $7.00. [List price $12.95] [CLEARANCE]

How to Order Books
To above prices, please add $2.50 for first book + $1.00 for each additional book for postage & handling. (Canadian orders add $4.00 for the first + $2.00 for each additional book.) Other countries add $5.00 for the first + $2.00 for each additional book. Please enclose payment with order and include your email address so we can contact you if there is a problem with your order. Send orders to Quackwatch, P.O. Box 1747, Allentown, PA 18105. Pennsylvania residents should add 6% for sales tax. Canadian & overseas checks must be in U.S. dollars. We cannot process credit card orders.


Leftover Periodicals

We have several hundred surplus copies of offbeat publications we accumulated as part of our research. Some are recent, while others date back into the 1980s. They include

  • Health-food industry publications: trade publications, consumer magazines, and newsletters
  • Chiropractic publications: newspapers, magazines, and journals
  • Vitamin catalogs
  • Various other items.

We don’t consider them sources of reliable information for consumers. However, they may be useful as examples of the misinformation circulating in the marketplace. If you prefer one or more of the above categories, please indicate that with your order. Otherwise we will provide as varied a mixture as we can.

The price is 60¢ each plus $3 per order for postage for orders in the United States (limit 20 per person). For Canadian orders, indicate what you want by e-mail and we will let you know the cost.


Fraud Ring Organizers and Three Chiropractors Get Prison Sentences

Mike Williams Tosca Martinez, Nhon Nguyen, and three female chiropractors have received prison sentences related to improper billing of insurance companies. Court documents indicate that at various times between 2002 and 2006, the defendants operated seven clinics in Southern Florida: More Pain Center, United Chiropractic Center of Florida, Broward Care Medical Center, Broward Care Chiropractic …

Mike Williams Tosca Martinez, Nhon Nguyen, and three female chiropractors have received prison sentences related to improper billing of insurance companies. Court documents indicate that at various times between 2002 and 2006, the defendants operated seven clinics in Southern Florida: More Pain Center, United Chiropractic Center of Florida, Broward Care Medical Center, Broward Care Chiropractic Center, North Miami Beach Health Center, Spine Relief Center, and Miramar Spine Relief Center. Martinez actually owned the clinics, but to qualify to run them without a special license, he pretended on registration applications that each was owned by a chiropractor [1].

To execute the scheme, Martinez, Nguyen, and other unindicted coconspirators solicited real victims of automobile accidents plus individuals who participated in “staged” accidents to visit the chiropractic clinics for treatment. Fifteen insurance companies were billed for nonexistent and inflated personal injuries and made at least $3,428,851 in payments [2-4].

The participants were not equally involved:

  • Martinez, who organized the ring, pled guilty in federal court to conspiracy to commit health care fraud, money laundering, and fraudulent use of another person’s social security number. He was sentenced 14 years’ imprisonment, to be followed by 3 years of supervised release.
  • Nguyen pled guilty to conspiracy to commit health care fraud and money laundering and was sentenced to 30 months in prison. The chiropractors each pled guilty to obstruction of a criminal investigation of health care offenses and making false statements to agents.
  • Jacqueline Gonzalez, D.C. was sentenced to 15 months in prison.
  • The second chiropractor received a 1-year sentence.
  • The third chiropractor worked at two of the clinics for about eleven months (May 2002 to April 2003) and did not own either one. In a telephone conversation, she told me that she was not involved in any patient solicitation and that when she learned about the “staged” accidents, she quit immediately. She received a 6-month sentence.

The court also ordered forfeiture of the $3.4 million.

The three chiropractors were also disciplined by Florida’s chiropractic licensing board:

  • Gonzalez was ordered to pay a $10,000 administrative fine plus $2,612 for costs, provide 1,000 hours of community service, and take an ethics course. Her license was suspended for a minimum of 5 years, after which, if her license is restored, she must serve four years of probation, during which her practice must be monitored [5]. She now practices in Toronto, Canada.
  • The second chiropractor was ordered to pay a $20,000 fine plus $8,571.64 for costs. Her license was indefinitely suspended “until she is able to demonstrate to the Board that she is capable of safely engaging in the practice of chiropractic medicine.” [6] In a recent telephone conversation, she told me that she became disabled and gave up her chiropractic license.
  • The third chiropractor was permitted to voluntarily and permanently surrender her license without further penalty [7].

References

  1. Organizer of health care fraud and insurance ring sentenced to prison. USDOJ news release, July 24, 2009.
  2. Superceding indictment. U.S.A. vs. Mike Williams Tosca Martinez, Nhon Nguyen, and Jacqueline Gonzalez. U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Florida, Case No. 0:08-CR-60168, Oct 7, 2008.
  3. Criminal information. District Court for the Southern District of Florida, Case No. 0:09-CR-60114, April 23, 2009.
  4. Criminal information. U.S.A. vs. … District Court for the Southern District of Florida, Case No. 0:09-CR-60113, April 23, 2009.
  5. Final order. State of Florida Board of Chiropractic Medicine, Case No. 2008-15636, filed May 19, 2010.
  6. Final order. State of Florida Board of Chiropractic Medicine, Case No. 2006-18801, filed Feb 15, 2010.
  7. Final order. State of Florida Board of Chiropractic Medicine, Case No. 2009-10254, filed May 19, 2010.

This article was revised on February 17, 2016.



NetResearch: Finding Information Online

Table of Contents 1. Instant gratification…and beyond Searching the Internet can be fruitful or frustrating. We’ll provide some reasons why it’s sometimes hard to locate things online, introduce some “rules for the road” for successful searching, and discuss the accuracy of information found online. 2. Internet basics We present a basic overview of the World …

Table of Contents


1. Instant gratification…and beyond
Searching the Internet can be fruitful or frustrating. We’ll provide some reasons why it’s sometimes hard to locate things online, introduce some “rules for the road” for successful searching, and discuss the accuracy of information found online.

2. Internet basics
We present a basic overview of the World Wide Web, Usenet news, electronic mail, and several other means of communication on the Internet. For beginners only.

3. Views of the Internet
The Internet can be viewed in many ways, such as a library, a collection of resources, or a bunch of programs. Each view can help you search effectively online, and we discuss their pros and cons. We also discuss the structure of the Internet, explain how knowledge of computer names can speed up your search, list some useful types of programs for searching, introduce searching by keyword, and give a brief introduction to URLs.

4. Choosing an effective starting point
The success and speed of a search depends on where you begin. We’ll discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various starting points: Web search engines, specialized Web sites, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) documents, public discussion groups, and your own intuition.

5. Web searching techniques
The World Wide Web is the premier method for locating information online. We take an in-depth look at search engines, simple queries, and advanced queries. Then we explain and compare numerous search strategies that work with most search engines: specific search, general search, incremental search, substring search, search-and-jump, and more.

6. Finding places
A little knowledge of computer names and domains can help you locate Web pages, FTP sites, and other Internet resources without doing any searching. After discussing the basics of computer and domain naming on the Net, we show you how to make intelligent guesses about the location of information.

7. Finding people
The Internet is great for tracking down colleagues, business partners, and long-lost friends. We discuss how to locate people via email address databases, telephone databases, Usenet, the Web, and more.

8. Finding kindred spirits
No matter what interests you have, you can find an online community who shares them. We discuss and compare three types of online meeting places: mailing lists, public discussion groups, and chat groups, and how they are best used.

9. Finding freely distributable software
The Internet contains tons of free software for every type of computer. This chapter explains how to locate software by name, type, computer platform, author’s name, and filename, using tools such as Web search, Archie, and FTP.

10. Finding information again
The Internet is constantly changing. When your favorite resources move or vanish, we’ll see how to refind them quickly without much (or any) searching. We also introduce bookmarks and bookmark management, discuss tips to prevent bookmarks from becoming out of date, and cover basic Web page creation for going beyond bookmarks.

11. Putting information online
By making a contribution to the Internet, you can help it grow and improve. Volunteering can be profitable, educational, satisfying, and a great way to make contacts. We discuss how to write effective FAQs, create mailing lists, build Web resources, and create and moderate discussion groups.

Appendix A. Great places to start a search

Appendix B. Answers to quiz questions



Chiropractic: The Greatest Hoax of the Century?

 Contents Prolog  Chapter 1 Is Chiropractic a Hoax?  Chapter 2 My Second Case  Chapter 3 The Case of Andy Warhol  Chapter 4 “At Your Own Risk, the Case Against Chiropractic”  Chapter 5 Smart Money Exposes Chiropractic  Chapter 6 The Chiropractic Stroke of Linda Solsbury  Chapter 7 A Visit to a Chiropractic College (link to Chirobase)  Chapter …

 Contents
Prolog
 Chapter 1 Is Chiropractic a Hoax?
 Chapter 2 My Second Case
 Chapter 3 The Case of Andy Warhol
 Chapter 4 “At Your Own Risk, the Case Against Chiropractic”
 Chapter 5 Smart Money Exposes Chiropractic
 Chapter 6 The Chiropractic Stroke of Linda Solsbury
 Chapter 7 A Visit to a Chiropractic College (link to Chirobase)
 Chapter 8 H.L. Mencken Destroys Chiropractic
 Chapter 9 Consumer Reports on Chiropractic
 Chapter 10 Why People Go to Chiropractors
 Chapter 11 Complaints Against Chiropractors
 Chapter 12 Wilk vs. the AMA
 Chapter 13 Principles & Practices of Chiropractic, a Chiropractic Text.
 Chapter 14 Chiropractic Responses to My Criticisms
 Chapter 15 The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Clinical  Guideline #14, Acute Low Back Pain Problems in Adults
 Chapter 16 A Chiropractic Lecture on Headache
 Chapter 17 A Visit with a Chiropractor in Alaskan Bush Country
 Chapter 18 Opinions on Chiropractic from the Scientific Community
 Chapter 19 Solution
 Epilogue
References
 Addendum


Functional Foods: Their Role in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

A Publication of the Institute of Food Technologists Expert Panel on Food Safety and Nutrition The tenet “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food,” espoused by Hippocrates nearly 2,500 years ago, is receiving renewed interest. In particular, there has been an explosion of consumer interest in the health enhancing role of specific foods …

A Publication of the Institute of Food Technologists Expert Panel on Food Safety and Nutrition

The tenet “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food,” espoused by Hippocrates nearly 2,500 years ago, is receiving renewed interest. In particular, there has been an explosion of consumer interest in the health enhancing role of specific foods or physiologically-active food components, so-called functional foods (Hasler, 1998). Clearly, all foods are functional, as they provide taste, aroma, or nutritive value. Within the last decade, however, the term functional as it applies to food has adopted a different connotation — that of providing an additional physiological benefit beyond that of meeting basic nutritional needs.

This Scientific Status Summary reviews the literature for the primary plant and animal foods that have been linked with physiological benefits. Although a plethora of biologically-active compounds have been identified in this regard (Kuhn, 1998), this review focuses on foods, rather than specific compounds isolated from foods.

Defining Functional Foods

The term functional foods was first introduced in Japan in the mid-1980s and refers to processed foods containing ingredients that aid specific bodily functions in addition to being nutritious. To date, Japan is the only country that has formulated a specific regulatory approval process for functional foods. Known as Foods for Specified Health Use (FOSHU), these foods are eligible to bear a seal of approval from the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (Arai, 1996). Currently, 100 products are licensed as FOSHU foods in Japan. Functional Foods: Their role in disease prevention and health promotion In the United States, the functional foods category is not recognized legally. Irrespective of this, many organizations have proposed definitions for this new and emerging area of the food and nutrition sciences. The Institute of Medicine’s Food and Nutrition Board (IOM/FNB, 1994) defined functional foods as “any food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients it contains.” Health-conscious baby boomers have made functional foods the leading trend in the U.S. food industry (Meyer, 1998). Estimates, however, of the magnitude of this market vary significantly, as there is no consensus on what constitutes a functional food. Decision Resources, Inc. (Waltham, 1998) estimates the market value of functional foods at $28.9 billion. More significant, perhaps, is the potential of functional foods to mitigate disease, promote health, and reduce health care costs.

Functional Foods From Plant Sources

Overwhelming evidence from epidemiological, in vivo, in vitro, and clinical trial data indicates that a plant-based diet can reduce the risk of chronic disease, particularly cancer. In 1992, a review of 200 epidemiological studies (Block et al., 1992) showed that cancer risk in people consuming diets high in fruits and vegetables was only one-half that in those consuming few of these foods. It is now clear that there are components in a plant-based diet other than traditional nutrients that can reduce cancer risk. Steinmetz and Potter (1991a) identified more than a dozen classes of these biologically active plant chemicals, now known as “phytochemicals.”

Health professionals are gradually recognizing the role of phytochemicals in health enhancement (ADA, 1995; Howard and Kritcheveky, 1997), aided in part by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (NLEA). The NLEA required nutrition labeling for most foods and allowed disease- or health-related messages on food labels.

Oats. Oat products are a widely studied dietary source of the cholesterol-lowering soluble fiber b-glucan. There is now significant scientific agreement that consumption of this particular plant food can reduce total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, thereby reducing the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). For this, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) awarded the first food-specific health claim in January 1997 (DHHS/FDA, 1997), in response to a petition submitted by the Quaker Oats Company (Chicago, Ill.).

In its health claim petition, the Quaker Oats Company summarized 37 human clinical intervention trials con-ducted between 1980 and 1995. The majority of these studies revealed statistically significant reductions in total and LDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic subjects consuming either a typical American diet or a low fat diet. The daily amount of oat bran or oatmeal consumed in the above studies ranged from 34 g to 123 g. Quaker Oats determined that 3 g of b-glucan would be required to achieve a 5% reduction in serum cholesterol, an amount equivalent to approximately 60 g of oatmeal or 40 g of oat bran (dry weight). Thus, a food bearing the health claim must contain 13 g of oat bran or 20 g oatmeal, and provide, without fortification, at least 1.0 g of b-glucan per serving. In February of 1998, the soluble fiber health claim was ex-tended to include psyllium fiber.

Soy. Soy has been in the spotlight during the 1990s. Not only is soy a high quality protein, as assessed by the FDA’s “Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score” method, it is now thought to play preventive and therapeutic roles in cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, osteoporosis, and the alleviation of menopausal symptoms.

The cholesterol-lowering effect of soy is the most well-documented physiological effect. A 1995 meta-analysis of 38 separate studies (involving 743 subjects) found that the consumption of soy protein resulted in significant reductions in total cholesterol (9.3%), LDL cholesterol (12.9%), and triglycerides (10.5%), with a small but insignificant increase (2.4%) in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (Anderson et al., 1995). Linear regression analysis indicated that the threshold level of soy intake at which the effects on blood lipids became significant was 25 g. Regarding the specific component responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of soy, recent attention has focused on the isoflavones (Potter, 1998). Isoflavones, however, were not effective in lowering cholesterol in two recent studies (Hodgson et al., 1998; Nestle et al., 1997). The exact mechanism by which soy exerts its hypocholesterolemic effect has not been fully elucidated.

On May 4, 1998, Protein Technologies International (PTI, St. Louis, Mo.) petitioned the FDA for a health claim on soy protein containing products pertaining to reduced risk of CHD. Based on an effective daily level of 25 g soy protein, PTI proposed that the amount of soy protein required to qualify an individual food to bear the health claim is 6.25 g with a minimum of 12.5 mg of total isoflavones (aglycone form) per reference amount customarily consumed. On August 12, the FDA accepted PTI’s petition and is in the process of formulating a proposed rule.

Several classes of anticarcinogens have been identified in soybeans, including protease inhibitors, phytosterols, saponins, phenolic acids, phytic acid, and isoflavones (Messina and Barnes, 1991). Of these, isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) are particularly noteworthy because soybeans are the only significant dietary source of these compounds. Isoflavones are heterocyclic phenols structurally similar to the estrogenic steroids. Because they are weak estrogens, isoflavones may act as antiestrogens by competing with the more potent, naturally-occurring endogenous estrogens (e.g., 17b-estradiol) for binding to the estrogen receptor. This may explain why populations that consume significant amounts of soy (e.g., Southeast Asia) have reduced risk of estrogen-dependent cancer. However, the epidemiological data on soy intake and cancer risk are inconsistent at the present time (Messina et al., 1997). To date, there are no published clinical intervention trials investigating the role of soy in reducing cancer risk.

Soy may also benefit bone health (Anderson and Garner, 1997). A recent clinical study involving 66 post-menopausal women conducted at the University of Illinois (Erdman and Potter, 1997) found that 40 g isolated soy protein (ISP) per day (containing 90 mg total isoflavones) significantly increased (approximately 2%) both bone mineral content and density in the lumbar spine after 6 months. The theory that soy may alleviate menopausal symptoms was prompted by the observation that Asian women report significantly lower levels of hot flushes and night sweats compared to Western women. Most recently, 60 grams of ISP daily for 3 months reduced hot flashes by 45% in 104 postmenopausal women (Albertazzi et al., 1998). Although these ob-servations are exciting, there is a significant placebo effect in these studies, and it is too premature to suggest that soy may substitute for hormone replace-ment therapy.

Flaxseed. Among the major seed oils, flaxseed oil contains the most (57%) of the omega-3 fatty acid, a-linolenic acid. Recent research, however, has focused more specifically on fiber-associated compounds known as lignans. The two primary mammalian lignans, enterodiol and its oxidation product, enterolactone, are formed in the intestinal tract by bacterial action on plant lignan precursors (Setchell et al., 1981). Flaxseed is the richest source of mammalian lignan precursors (Thompson et al., 1991). Because enterodiol and enterolactone are structurally similar to both naturally-occurring and synthetic estrogens, and have been shown to possess weakly estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities, they may play a role in the prevention of estrogen-dependent cancers. However, there are no epidemiological data and relatively few animal studies to support this hypothesis. In rodents, flaxseed has been shown to decrease tumors of the colon and mammary gland (Thompson, 1995) as well as of the lung (Yan et al., 1998).

Fewer studies have evaluated the effects of flaxseed feeding on risk markers for cancer in humans. Phipps et al. (1993) demonstrated that the ingestion of 10 g of flaxseed per day elicited several hormonal changes associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Adlercreutz et al. (1982) found that the urinary lignan excretion was significantly lower in postmenopausal breast cancer patients compared to controls eating a normal mixed or a lactovegetarian diet.

Consumption of flaxseed has also been shown to reduce total and LDL cholesterol (Bierenbaum et al., 1993; Cunnane et al., 1993), as well as platelet aggregation (Allman et al., 1995).

Tomatoes. Selected by Eating Well magazine as the 1997 Vegetable of the Year, tomatoes have received significant attention within the last three years because of interest in lycopene, the primary carotenoid found in this fruit (Gerster, 1997), and its role in cancer risk reduction (Weisburger, 1998).

In a prospective cohort study of more than 47,000 men, those who consumed tomato products 10 or more times per week had less than one-half the risk of developing advanced prostate cancer (Giovannucci et al., 1995). Interestingly, lycopene is the most abundant carotenoid in the prostate gland (Clinton et al., 1996). Other cancers whose risk have been inversely associated with serum or tissue levels of lycopene include breast, digestive tract, cervix, bladder, and skin (Clinton, 1998) and possibly lung (Li et al., 1997). Proposed mechanisms by which lycopene could influence cancer risk are related to its antioxidant function. Lycopene is the most efficient quencher of singlet oxygen in biological systems (Di Mascio et al., 1989). The antioxidant function of lycopene may also explain the recent observation in a multi-center European study that adipose tissue levels of carotenoids were inversely associated with risk for myocardial infarction (Kohlmeier et al., 1997b).

Garlic. Garlic (Allium sativum) is likely the herb most widely quoted in the literature for medicinal properties (Nagourney, 1998). Thus, its not surprising that garlic has ranked as the second best selling herb in the United States for the past two years (Anon., 1998). The purported health benefits of garlic are numerous, including cancer chemopreventive, antibiotic, anti-hypertensive, and cholesterol-lowering properties (Srivastava et al., 1995).

The characteristic flavor and pungency of garlic are due to an abundance of oil-and water-soluble, sulfur-containing elements, which are also likely responsible for the various medicinal effects ascribed to this plant. However, intact, undisturbed bulbs of garlic contain only a few medicinally active components. The intact garlic bulb contains an odorless amino acid, alliin, which is converted enzymatically by allinase into allicin when the garlic cloves are crushed (Block, 1992). This latter compound is responsible for the characteristic odor of fresh garlic. Allicin then spontaneously decomposes to form numerous sulfur-containing compounds, some of which have been investigated for their chemopreventive activity.

Garlic components have been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis in several experimental models (Reuter et al., 1996). However, additional reports have shown garlic to be ineffective. Inconclusive results are likely due to differences in the type of garlic compounds or preparations used by various investigators. Considerable variation in the quantity of organosulfur compounds available in fresh and commercially available garlic products has been demonstrated (Lawson et al., 1991).

Several epidemiologic studies show that the garlic may be effective in reducing human cancer risk (Dorant et al., 1993). A relatively large case-control investigation conducted in China showed a strong inverse relationship between stomach cancer risk and in-creasing allium intake (You et al., 1988). More recently, in a study of more than 40,000 postmenopausal women, garlic consumption was associated with nearly a 50% reduction in colon cancer risk (Steinmetz et al., 1994). Not all epidemiological studies, however, have shown garlic to be protective against carcinogenesis. A 1991 review of 12 case-control studies (Steinmetz and Potter, 1991b), found that eight showed a negative association, one showed no association, and three studies showed a positive association. A more recent review of 20 epidemiological studies (Ernst, 1997) suggests that allium vegetables, including onions, may confer a protective effect on cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.

Garlic has also been advocated for the prevention of CVD, possibly through antihypertensive properties. According to Silagy and Neil (1994a), however, there is still insufficient evidence to recommend it as a routine clinical therapy for the treatment of hypertensive subjects. The cardioprotective effects are more likely due to its cholesterol-lowering effect. In a meta-analysis, Warshafsky et al. (1993) summarized the results of five randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials, involving 410 patients. They showed that an average of 900 mg garlic/day (as little as one half to one clove of garlic) could decrease total serum cholesterol levels by approximately 9%. In a second meta-analysis involving 16 trials, Silagy and Neil (1994b) reported that 800 mg garlic/day reduced total cholesterol levels by 12%. The validity of both of these reports, however, is reduced by methodological shortcomings, including the fact that dietary intake, weight, and/or exogenous garlic ingestion was not always well-controlled. In a recent multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in which dietary assessment and supervision were strictly controlled, 12 weeks of garlic treatment was ineffective in lowering cholesterol levels in subjects with hypercholesterolemia (Isaacsohn et al., 1998). It is currently unclear which component in garlic is responsible for its cholesterol-lowering effect.

Broccoli and other Cruciferous Vegetables. Epidemiological evidence has associated the frequent consumption of cruciferous vegetables with decreased cancer risk. In a recent review of 87 case-control studies, Verhoeven et al. (1996) demonstrated an inverse association between consumption of total brassica vegetables and cancer risk. The percentages of case-control studies showing an inverse association between consumption of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts and cancer risk were 70, 56, 67, and 29%, respectively. Verhoeven et al. (1997) attributed the anticarcinogenic properties of cruciferous vegetables to their relatively high content of glucosinolates.

Glucosinolates are a group of glycosides stored within cell vacuoles of all cruciferous vegetables. Myrosinase, an enzyme found in plant cells, catalyzes these compounds to a variety of hydrolysis products, including isothiocyanates and indoles. Indole-3 carbinol (I3C) is currently under investigation for its cancer chemopreventive properties, particularly of the mammary gland. In addition to the induction of phase I and II detoxification reactions, I3C may reduce cancer risk by modulating estrogen metabolism. The C-16 and C-2 hydroxylations of estrogens involve competing cytochrome P-450-dependent pathways, each sharing a common estrogen substrate pool. Studies suggest that the increased formation of 2-hydroxylated (catechol) estrogen metabolites relative to 16-hydroxylated forms, may protect against cancer, as catechol estrogens can act as antiestrogens in cell culture. In contrast, 16-hydroxyestrone is estrogenic and can bind to the estrogen receptor. In humans, I3C administered at 500 mg daily (equivalent to 350-500 g cabbage/day) for 1 week significantly increased the extent of estradiol 2-hydroxylation in women (Michnovicz and Bradlow, 1991), suggesting that this compound may be a novel approach for reducing the risk of breast cancer. However, since I3C has also been shown to enhance carcinogenesis in vivo, caution has been urged be-fore proceeding with extensive clinical trials (Dashwood, 1998), although such phase I trials are currently ongoing (Wong et al., 1998).

Although a wide variety of naturally occurring and synthetic isothiocyanates have been shown to prevent cancer in animals (Hecht, 1995), attention has been focused on a particular isothiocyanate isolated from broccoli, known as sulforaphane. Sulforaphane has been shown to be the principal inducer of a particular type of Phase II enzyme, quinone reductase. Fahey et al., (1997) recently demonstrated that 3-day-old broccoli sprouts contained 10-100 times higher levels of glucoraphanin (the glucosinolate of sulforaphane) than did corresponding mature plants. However, in view of the importance of an overall dietary pattern in cancer risk reduction, the clinical implications of a single phytochemical in isolation has been questioned (Nestle, 1998).

Citrus Fruits. Several epidemiological studies have shown that citrus fruits are protective against a variety of human cancers. Although oranges, lemons, limes, and grapefruits are a principal source of such important nutrients as vitamin C, folate, and fiber, Elegbede et al. (1993) have suggested that another component is responsible for the anticancer activity. Citrus fruits are particularly high in a class of phytochemicals known as the limonoids (Hasegawa and Miyake, 1996).

Over the last decade, evidence has been accumulating in support of the cancer preventative effect of limonene (Gould, 1997). Crowell (1997) showed this compound to be effective against a variety of both spontaneous and chemically- induced rodent tumors. Based on these observations, and because it has little or no toxicity in humans, limonene has been suggested as a good candidate for human clinical chemoprevention trial evaluation. A metabolite of limonene, perrillyl alcohol, is currently undergoing Phase I clinical trials in patients with advanced malignancies (Ripple et al., 1998).

Cranberry. Cranberry juice has been recognized as efficacious in the treatment of urinary tract infections since 1914, when Blatherwick (1914) reported that this benzoic acid-rich fruit caused acidification of the urine. Recent investigations have focused on the ability of cranberry juice to inhibit the adherence of Escherichia coli to uroepithelial cells (Schmidt and Sobota, 1988). This phenomenon has been attributed to two compounds: fructose and a nondialyzable polymeric compound. The latter compound, subsequently isolated from cranberry and blueberry juices (Ofek et al., 1991), was found to inhibit adhesins present on the pili of the surface of certain pathogenic E. coli.

Avorn et al. (1994) published the results of the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial de-signed to determine the effect of a commercial cranberry juice beverage on urinary tract infections. One hundred-fifty three elderly women consuming 300 mL cranberry beverage per day had significantly reduced (58%) incidence of bacteriuria with pyuria compared to the control group after six months. Based on the results of these studies, prevailing beliefs about the benefits of cranberry juice on the urinary tract appear to be justified.

Tea. Tea is second only to water as the most widely consumed beverage in the world. A great deal of attention has been directed to the polyphenolic constituents of tea, particularly green tea (Harbowy and Balentine, 1997). Polyphenols comprise up to 30% of the total dry weight of fresh tea leaves. Catechins are the predominant and most significant of all tea polyphenols (Graham, 1992). The four major green tea catechins are epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and epicatechin.

In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in pharmacological effects of tea (AHF, 1992). By far, most re-search on health benefits of tea has focused on its cancer chemopreventive effects, although the epidemiological studies are inconclusive at the present time (Katiyar and Mukhtar, 1996). In a 1993 review of 100 epidemiological studies (Yang and Wang, 1993), approximately 2/3 of the studies found no relationship between tea consumption and cancer risk, while 20 found a positive relation-ship and only 14 studies found that tea consumption reduced cancer risk. A more recent review suggests that benefits from tea consumption are restricted to high intakes in high-risk populations (Kohlmeier et al., 1997a). This hypothesis supports the recent finding that the consumption of five or more cups of green tea per day was associated with decreased recurrence of stage I and II breast cancer in Japanese women (Nakachi et al., 1998).

In contrast to the inconclusive results from epidemiological studies, research findings in laboratory animals clearly support a cancer chemopreventive effect of tea components. In fact, Dreosti et al.(1997) stated that “no other agent tested for possible chemoprevention effects in animal models has elicited such strong activity as tea and its components at the concentrations usually consumed by humans.”

There is some evidence that tea consumption may also reduce the risk of CVD. Hertog and coworkers (1993) reported that tea consumption was the major source of flavonoids in a population of elderly men in the Netherlands. Intake of five flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin, and luteolin), the majority of which was derived from tea consumption, was significantly inversely associated with mortality from CHD in this population. Although several other prospective studies have demonstrated a substantial reduction in CVD risk with tea consumption, the evidence is not presently conclusive (Tijburg et al., 1997).

Wine and Grapes. There is growing evidence that wine, particularly red wine, can reduce the risk of CVD. The link between wine intake and CVD first became apparent in 1979 when St. Leger et al. (1979) found a strong negative correlation between wine intake and death from ischemic heart disease in both men and women from 18 countries. France in particular has a relatively low rate of CVD despite diets high in dairy fat (Renaud and de Lorgeril, 1992). Although this “French Paradox” can be partly explained by the ability of alcohol to in-crease HDL cholesterol, more recent investigations have focused on the non-alcohol components of wine, in particular, the flavonoids.

The high phenolic content of red wine, which is about 20-50 times higher than white wine, is due to the incorporation of the grape skins into the ferment-ing grape juice during production. Kanner et al. (1994) showed that the black seedless grapes and red wines (i.e., Cabernet Sauvignon and Petite Sirah) contain high concentrations of phenolics: 920, 1800, and 3200 mg/L, respectively, while green Thomson grapes contain only 260 mg/kg phenolics. Frankel and coworkers (1993) attributed the positive benefits of red wine to the ability of phenolic substances to prevent the oxidation of LDL, a critical event in the process of atherogenesis.

Although the benefits of wine consumption on CVD risk reduction seem promising, a recent prospective study of 128,934 adults in Northern California concluded that the benefits of alcohol consumption on coronary risk were not especially associated with red wine (Klatsky et al., 1997). Moreover, a note of caution is in order, as alcoholic beverages of all kinds have been linked to increased risk of several types of cancer, including breast cancer (Bowlin et al., 1997). Moderate wine consumption has also been associated with a de-creased risk of age-related macular degeneration (Obisesan et al., 1998).

Those who desire health benefits of wine without potential risk may wish to consider alcohol-free wine, which has been shown to increase total plasma antioxidant capacity (Serafini et al., 1998). Furthermore, Day et al. (1998) showed that commercial grape juice is effective in inhibiting the oxidation of LDL isolated from human subjects. Red wine is also a significant source of trans-resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in grape skins (Creasy and Coffee, 1988). Resveratrol has also been shown to have estrogenic properties (Gehm et al., 1997) which may explain in part the cardiovascular benefits of wine drinking, and it has been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis in vivo (Jang et al., 1997).

Functional Foods From Animal Sources

Although the vast number of naturally occurring health-enhancing substances are of plant origin, there are a number of physiologically-active components in animal products that deserve attention for their potential role in optimal health.

Fish. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are an essential class of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived primarily from fish oil. It has been suggested that the Western-type diet is currently deficient in n-3 fatty acids, which is reflected in the current estimated n-6 to n-3 dietary ratio of 20:25-1, compared to the 1:1 ratio on which humans evolved (Simopoulos, 1991). This has prompted researchers to examine the role of n-3 fatty acids in a number of diseases — particularly cancer and CVD — and more recently, in early human development.

That n-3 fatty acids may play an important role in CVD was first brought to light in the 1970s when Bang and Dyerberg (1972) reported that Eskimos had low rates of this disease despite consuming a diet which was high in fat. The cardioprotective effect of fish consumption has been observed in some prospective investigations (Krumhout et al., 1985), but not in others (Ascherio et al., 1995). Negative results could be explained by the fact that although n-3 fatty acids have been shown to lower triglycerides by 25-30%, they do not lower LDL cholesterol. In fact, a recent review of 72 placebo- controlled human trials, showed that n-3 fatty acids increased LDL cholesterol (Harris, 1996).

Although eating large amounts of fish has not unequivocally been shown to reduce CVD risk in healthy men, consumption of 35 g or more of fish daily has been shown to reduce the risk of death from nonsudden myocardial infarction in the Chicago Western Electric Study (Daviglus et al., 1997), and as little as one serving of fish per week was associated with a significantly reduced risk of total cardiovascular mortality after 11 years in more than 20,000 U.S. male physicians (Albert et al., 1998).

Dairy Products. There is no doubt that dairy products are functional foods. They are one of the best sources of calci-um, an essential nutrient which can prevent osteoporosis and possibly colon cancer. In view of the former, the National Academy of Sciences recently increased recommendations for this nutrient for most age groups. In addition to calcium, however, recent research has focused specifically on other components in dairy products, particularly fermented dairy products known as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as “live microbial feed supplements which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance” (Fuller, 1994).

It is estimated that over 400 species of bacteria, separated into two broad categories, inhabit the human gastrointestinal tract. The categories are: those considered to be beneficial (e.g., Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and those considered detrimental (e.g., Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium spp.). Of the beneficial microorganisms traditionally used in food fermentation, lactic acid bacteria have attracted the most attention (Sanders, 1994). Although a variety of health benefits have been attributed to probiotics, their anticarcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic and antagonistic actions against enteric pathogens and other intestinal organisms have received the most attention (Mital and Garg, 1995).

The hypocholesterolemic effect of fermented milk was discovered more than 30 years ago during studies con-ducted in Maasai tribesmen in Africa (Mann et al., 1964). The Maasai have low levels of serum cholesterol and clinical coronary heart disease despite a high meat diet. However, they consume daily 4 to 5 L of fermented whole milk. Although a number of human clinical studies have assessed the cholesterol-lowering effects of fermented milk products (Sanders, 1994), results are equivocal. Study outcomes have been complicated by inadequate sample sizes, failure to control nutrient intake and energy expenditure, and variations in baseline blood lipids.

More evidence supports the role of probiotics in cancer risk reduction, particularly colon cancer (Mital and Garg, 1995). This observation may be due to the fact that lactic acid cultures can alter the activity of fecal enzymes (e.g., b-glucuronidase, azoreductase, nitroreductase) that are thought to play a role in the development of colon cancer. Relatively less attention has been focused on the consumption of fermented milk products and breast cancer risk, al-though an inverse relationship has been observed in some studies (Talamini et al., 1984; van’t Veer et al., 1989).

In addition to probiotics, there is growing interest in fermentable carbohydrates that feed the good microflora of the gut. These prebiotics, defined by Gibson and Roberfroid (1995) as “nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon and thus improves host health,” may include starches, dietary fibers, other non-absorbable sugars, sugar alcohols, and oligosaccharides (Gibson et al., 1996). Of these, oligosaccharides have received the most attention, and numerous health benefits have been attributed to them (Tomomatsu, 1994). Oligosaccharides consist of short chain polysaccharides composed of three and 10 simple sugars linked together. They are found naturally in many fruits and vegetables (including banana, garlic, onions, milk, honey, artichokes). The prebiotic concept has been further extended to encompass the concept of synbiotics, a mixture of pro- and prebiotics (Gibson and Roberfroid, 1995). Many synbiotic products are currently on the market in Europe.

Beef. An anticarcinogenic fatty acid known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was first isolated from grilled beef in 1987 (Ha et al., 1987). CLA refers to a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) in which the double bonds are conjugated instead of existing in the typical methylene interrupted configuration. Nine different isomers of CLA have been reported as occurring naturally in food. CLA is unique in that it is found in highest concentrations in fat from ruminant animals (e.g., beef, dairy, and lamb). Beef fat contains 3.1 to 8.5 mg CLA/g fat with the 9-cis and 11-trans isomers contributing 57- 85% of the total CLA (Decker, 1995). Interestingly, CLA increases in foods that are cooked and/or otherwise processed. This is significant in view of the fact that many mutagens and carcinogens have been identified in cooked meats.

Over the past decade, CLA has been shown to be effective in suppressing forestomach tumors in mice, aberrant colonic crypt foci in rats, and mammary carcinogenesis in rats (Ip and Scimeca, 1997). In the mammary tumor model, CLA is an effective anticarcinogen in the range of 0.1-1% in the diet, which is higher than the estimated consumption of approximately 1 g CLA/person/day in the United States. These results are not due to displacement of linoleic acid in cells, suggesting that there may be unique mechanism(s) by which CLA modulates tumor development. Thus, there has been research designed to increase the CLA content in dairy cow milk through dietary modification (Kelly et al., 1998).

More recently, CLA has been investigated for its ability to change body com-position, suggesting a role as a weight-reduction agent. Mice fed CLA-supplemented diets (0.5%) exhibited 60% lower body fat and 14% increased lean body mass relative to controls (Park et al., 1997), possibly by reducing fat deposition and increasing lipolysis in adipocytes.

Safety Issues

Although “increasing the availability of healthful foods, including functional foods, in the American diet is critical to ensuring a healthier population” (ADA, 1995), safety is a critical issue. The optimal levels of the majority of the biologically active components currently under investigation have yet to be determined. In addition, a number of animal studies show that some of the same phytochemicals (e.g., allyl isothiocyanate) highlighted in this review for their cancer-preventing properties have been shown to be carcinogenic at high concentrations (Ames et al., 1990). Thus, Paracelsus’ 15th century doctrine that “All substances are poisons . . . the right dose differentiates a poison from a remedy” is even more pertinent today given the proclivity for dietary supplements.

The benefits and risks to individuals and populations as a whole must be weighed carefully when considering the widespread use of physiologically-active functional foods. For example, what are the risks of recommending the increased intake of compounds (e.g., isoflavones) that may modulate estrogen metabolism? Soy phytoestrogens may represent a “double-edged sword” because of reports that genistein may actually promote certain types of tumors in animals (Rao et al., 1997). Knowledge of toxicity of functional food components is crucial to decrease the risk: benefit ratio.

Conclusion

Mounting evidence supports the ob-servation that functional foods containing physiologically-active components, either from plant or animal sources, may enhance health. It should be stressed, however, that functional foods are not a magic bullet or universal panacea for poor health habits. There are no “good” or “bad” foods, but there are good or bad diets. Emphasis must be placed on over-all dietary pattern — one that follows the current U.S. Dietary Guidelines, and is plant-based, high in fiber, low in animal fat, and contains 5-9 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Moreover, diet is only one component of an overall lifestyle that can have an impact on health; other components include smoking, physical activity, and stress.

Health-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking functional foods in an effort to control their own health and well-being. The field of functional foods, however, is in its infancy. Claims about health benefits of functional foods must be based on sound scientific criteria (Clydesdale, 1997). A number of factors complicate the establishment of a strong scientific foundation, however. These factors include the complexity of the food substance, effects on the food, compensatory metabolic changes that may occur with dietary changes, and, lack of surrogate markers of disease development. Additional research is necessary to substantiate the potential health benefits of those foods for which the diet-health relationships are not sufficiently scientifically validated.

Research into functional foods will not advance public health unless the benefits of the foods are effectively communicated to the consumer. The Harvard School of Public Health (Boston, Mass.) and the International Food Information Council Foundation (Washington, D.C.) recently released a set of communication guidelines, aimed at scientists, journal editors, journalists, interest groups, and others for improving public understanding of emerging science. The guidelines are intended to help ensure that research results about nutrition, food safety, and health are communicated in a clear, balanced, and nonmisleading manner (Fineberg and Rowe, 1998). Finally, those foods whose health benefits are supported by sufficient scientific substantiation have the potential to be an increasingly important component of a healthy lifestyle and to be beneficial to the public and the food industry.

About the Author

Dr. Hasler is executive director of the Functional Foods for Health Program, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. This article can be downloaded in PDF format as originally published in Food Technology 52(2):57-62, 1998.

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