Questionable Organizations: An Overview


Stephen Barrett, M.D.

Promoters of questionable health practices often form organizations to multiply their effectiveness. How can one tell which ones are reliable and which are not? There is no sure way, but ten precautionary questions may help:

1. Are its ideas inside the scientific mainstream? Some groups admit that they were formed because their founders felt alienated from the scientific community. One group that made no secret of this was actually called the American Quack Association, whose main purposes were to provide emotional support to its members, poke fun at their critics, and stimulate positive public feelings toward unconventional practitioners. The group was founded in 1985 by Jonathan Wright, M.D., who became its president, and Roy Kupsinel, M.D., a “holistic” practitioner from Florida, who became its vice-president. It attracted about 300 members but no longer appears active.

2. Who are its leaders and advisors? The International Society for Fluoride Research may sound respectable, but it is actually an antifluoridation group. The International Academy of Preventive Medicine (now called the International Academy of Nutrition and Preventive Medicine) numbered among its leaders Carlton Fredericks, Linus Pauling, Lendon Smith, and other promoters of questionable nutrition practices. The Health Resources Council was founded by Gary Null to promote “alternative” health methods.

3. What are its membership requirements? Is scientific expertise required—or just a willingness to pay dues? An organization open to almost anyone may be perfectly respectable (like the American Association for the Advancement of Science), but don’t let the fact that an individual belongs to it impress you. The International Academy of Nutritional Consultants, the American Association of Nutritional Consultants, the National Academy of Research Biochemists, and the International Association of Therapeutic Specialists issue attractive certificates, but their only requirement for “professional membership” has been payment of a modest fee. Some “institutes,” “research” centers, and voluntary organizations are simply names adopted by an individual or a few people who wish to make their commercial activities sound more respectable. The National Academy of Sports Medicine, for example, began as a private corporation used for marketing dubious products; and the “Noble Research Society” merely marketed a quack device.

4. Does it promote a specific treatment or treatments? Most such groups should be highly suspect. A century ago, valid new ideas were hard to evaluate and often were rejected by the medical community. But today, effective new treatments are quickly welcomed by scientific practitioners and do not need special groups to promote them. The American College for Advancement in Medicine, the main purpose of which has been to promote chelation therapy, falls into this category. Others include:

  • The American Academy of Environmental Medicine, which promotes “clinical ecology” and the bogus concept of multiple chemical sensitivity.
  • The American Association of Orthopedic Medicine, which promotes prolotherapy.
  • The American Schizophrenia Association, which promotes megavitamins, and the group’s parent organization, the Huxley Institute for Biosocial Research.
  • The International Health Foundation, which promotes the fad diagnosis of candidiasis hypersensitivity.
  • The Physicians’ Association for Eradicating Chronic Disease (which promotes Maharishi Ayur-Veda)
  • The National Wellness Coalition, whose stated mission is “to promote wellness principles, policies and practices as the key to affordable, effective health care and a healthy prosperous nation.” Despite the rhetoric, however, the coalition pays very little attention to proven health methods and promotes a broad spectrum of unscientific approaches.
  • The World Research Association and various other groups that promote questionable cancer therapies.

A few groups promote a mixture of science-based and dubious practices. The American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy, for example, promotes the concepts of clinical ecology, and the American Academy of Osteopathy espouses cranial therapy. Some groups have even set up their own certifying boards.

5. Does it oppose proven public health measures? Opposition to fluoridation and immunization are tipoffs to extremely poor judgment. The names of such organizations sometimes fail to reveal their true purpose. “Pure water” and “Safe Water” groups nearly always have dishonest opposition to fluoridation as their central focus. The Preventive Dental Health Association is opposed to the use of amalgam fillings as well as to fluoridation. The World Children’s Wellness Foundation is a chiropractic group that opposes the immunization of children.

6. Does it espouse a version of “freedom of choice” that would abolish government regulation of the health marketplace? Such “freedom” is nothing more than a ploy to persuade legislators to permit the marketing of quack methods without legal restraints. Consumers for Dental Care, for example, has sought an end toward what it calls “discrimination” against dentists who advise patients to have their amalgam fillings removed.

7. How is it financed? The Council for Responsible Nutrition, despite its respectable-sounding name, represents manufacturers and distributors of food supplements and other nutritional products. Don’t assume, however, that funding by an industry makes an organization unreliable. Reliability should be determined by judging the validity of a group’s ideas rather than its funding. The National Dairy Council and the Institute of Food Technologists are highly respected by the scientific community for their accurate publications on nutrition. The Partnership for Safe Medicines, which opposes importation of drugs from even legitimate Canadian pharmacies, is has deep ties to the drug industry’s major lobbying group.

8. Is it a real organization? Some entrepreneurs simply make up names for the purpose of marketing products, such as weight-control pills, sex enhancers, or various dietary supplements. If an “institute,” “clinic,” “laboratory,” “research center,” or professional-sounding “association” uses sensational claims to market products by mail or through the Internet, it is probably a phony. For example, the “American Urological Clinic,” which marketed a phony impotence remedy called Vaegra (not Viagra) in 1998, was merely a rented mailbox in Kansas City, Missouri. Scams also exist in which donations are solicited for a phony organization with a name similar to that of a well-known genuine charity.

9. If it is a school, is it accredited by a recognized agency? Accreditation constitutes public recognition that an educational program meets the administrative, organizational, and financial criteria of a recognized agency. In the United States, educational standards for schools are set by a network of agencies approved by the U.S. Departent of Education (USDE) or the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). USOE or CHEA do not accredit individual schools, but they approve the national and regional agencies that do so. Almost all such agencies are voluntary and nongovernmental. Accreditation enables credits to be transferable from one school to another and is used as a basis for entering various professions. In other countries, schools approved by the Minister of Education tend to be reputable. Degrees from entities that are not accredited or approved should not be regarded as equivalent to those from accredited or approved schools.

Lack of accreditation of a health-related school should be considered a very bad sign. I have never encountered a nonaccredited school that issued health credentials that did not promote misinformation. Of course, neither accreditation nor affiliation with an otherwise reputable university provides any guarantee of reliability. The U.S. Secretary of Education has recognized agencies that accredit schools of chiropractic, astrology, acupuncture/oriental medicine, massage, and naturopathy with little regard to the validity of what they teach. Moreover, many universities promote health-related nonsense in addition to sound science. Temple University’s Center for Frontier Sciences and Columbia University’s Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Center for Alternative and Complementary Medicine are examples of bad components of basically good institutions.

10. If it awards certifications, how stringent are its requirements? Various types of unscientific practitioners have formed boards through which they certify themselves. In the United States, the recognized standard-setting organization is the Americn Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS), which recognizes more than 100 specialties and subspecialties. Some medical certifying boards outside of this system have high standards, but most do not.

I view the following with considerable distrust. Some are no longer active. If you would like to nominate others for this list, please contact us.

Professional Organizations
Student Organizations
  • American Medical Student Association (AMSA)
  • Naturopathic Medical Student Organization (NMSA)
Dubious Certifying Boards
Voluntary Organizations
  • A Perfect Healing
  • Alive & Well AIDS Alternatives
  • Alliance for Bio-Integrity
  • Alliance for Natural Health International (ANH-Int)
  • Alliance for Safe Online Pharmacies
  • Alzheimer’s Disease Fund (Project Cure Foundation)
  • Amber’s Alliance Foundation
  • American Consumer Fitness Association
  • American Council on Collaborative Medicine (ACCM)
  • American Medical Denturity Association
  • American Natural Hygiene Association (ANHA)
  • American Polarity Association
  • American Schizophrenia Association
  • Americans Against Mercury
  • American Iatrogenic Association
  • Antidairy Coalition
  • Arlin J. Brown Information Center
  • Arthritis Trust of America
  • AutismOne
  • Association for Comprehensive NeuroTherapy (ACN)
  • Autism Society
  • Autism Treatment Trust
  • Australian Vaccination Network (formerly Vaccination Awareness Network)
  • BioDemocracy Alliance
  • BioPsciences Institute
  • The Bravewell Collaborative
  • Breast Iodine Thyroid Effectiveness Society (BITES)
  • Campaign for Truth in Medicine
  • Canadian Hypnosis Association
  • Cancer Control Society
  • Cancer Information Center
  • Cancer Curing Society
  • Cancer Prevention Coalition
  • Candida and Dysbiosis Information Foundation (CDIF)
  • Center for Medical Consumers
  • Center for Advancement in Cancer Education
  • Center for Alternative Cancer Research (Project Cure Foundation)
  • Center for Empirical Medicine
  • Center for Nutritional Research
  • CFIDS Association of America
  • Chemical Injury Information Network
  • Children’s Health Defense
  • Citizens for Health
  • Citizens for Mercury Relief
  • Citizens Organization for Patient Safety (COPS)
  • Coalition on Abortion/Breast Cancer
  • Cognitive Enhancement Research Institute (CERI)
  • College of Medicine (United Kingdom)
  • Committee for Freedom of Choice in Medicine (CFCM)
  • Coalition of Americans against Mercury
  • CoMeD (Coalition for Mercury-free Drugs)
  • Conservatives for Patients’ Rights
  • Consumer Health Organization of Canada
  • Consumers for Dental Choice
  • Defeat Autism Now! (DAN!)
  • Dinshah Health Society
  • EarthSave International/EarthSave Foundation
  • Environmental Working Group (EWG)
  • Esperanza Research Foundation
  • Feingold Association of the United States (FAUS)
  • Fetzer Institute
  • Florida Institute of Neuro-Dynamics (FIND)
  • Fluoride Action Network
  • Flower Essence Society
  • Food and Water
  • Foundation for Alternative Cancer Therapy, Ltd.
  • Foundation for Autism Information and Research (FAIR)
  • Foundation for Blood Irradiation
  • Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research (FCER)
  • Foundation for Advanced Craniofacial Esthetic Studies (F.A.C.E.S.)
  • Foundation for the Advancement of Innovation in Medicine (FAIM)
  • Foundation for Integrated Medicine
  • Foundation for Toxic Free Dentistry
  • Generation Rescue
  • Gentle Wind Project (link to another site)
  • Gordon Research Institute
  • Health Action Network Society (in Canada)
  • Health Education Alliance for Life and Longevity (H.E.A.L.L.)
  • Health Liberty
  • Health Sciences Institute (HSI)
  • Herb Research Foundation
  • Holistic Moms Network
  • Human Ecology Action League
  • Huxley Institute for Biosocial Research
  • Hypoglycemia Association
  • Immunisation Awareness Society (IAS)
  • Institute for Chronic Illnesses
  • Institute for Functional Medicine (IFM)
  • Institute of Technical Energy Medicine (ITEM)
  • Institute for Vibrant Living
  • Institute of Noetic Sciences (IONS)
  • Integrative Medicine Alliance (IMA)
  • International Academy of Biological Medicine.
  • International Advocates for Health Freedom (IAHF)
  • International Association of Cancer Victors and Friends (IACVF)
  • International Center for the Study of Psychiatry and Psychology (ICSPP)
  • International Coalition for Drug Awareness (ICFDA)
  • International Council for Health Freedom (ICHF)
  • International Cranial-TMJ Academy
  • International Health Foundation
  • International Institute of Advanced Longevity Medicine (InCALM)
  • International Medical Veritas Association (IMVA)
  • International Oxidative Medicine Association
  • International Society for the Study of Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine (ISSSEEM)
  • Justice Awarenes and Basic Support (JABS)
  • Kids Against Pollution
  • Leading Edge International Research Group
  • Life Extension Foundation (in Florida)
  • Lyme Disease Association (Jackson, N.J.)
  • Medical Veritas Association
  • MindFreedom International
  • Moms Against Mercury
  • Mothers for Natural Law
  • National Association for Alternative Medicine (NAAM)
  • National Association for Honesty in Medicine (NAFHIM
  • National Council for Improved Health (NCIH)
  • National Diabetes Fund (a component of Project Cure Foundation)
  • National Fibromyalgia Association (NFA)
  • National Health Association (formerly called the American Natural Hygiene Society)
  • National Health Federation (NHF)
  • National Health Freedom Coalition
  • National Institute for Healthcare Research (NIHR)
  • National Institute for Science, Law, and Public Policy (NSLAPP)
  • National Pure Water Association (NPWA)
  • National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC)
  • National Wellness Coalition
  • New Hope Foundation
  • New York Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides (NYCAP)
  • Nutrition Institute of America (New York City)
  • Organic Consumers Organization
  • Othomolecular Oncology
  • Partnership for Safe Medicines
  • Patients for Alternative Medicine (PFAM)
  • People Against Cancer
  • People for Reason in Science and Medicine
  • People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) (link to another site)
  • People’s Dental Association
  • People’s Medical Society
  • Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM)
  • Preventive and Environmental Health Alliance
  • Preventive Dental Health Association (PDHA)
  • Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation
  • Prostate Cancer Fund (component of Project Cure Foundation)
  • Protect Our Water Alliance (POWA)
  • Roger Wyburn-Mason & Jack Blount Foundation for the Eradication of Rheumatoid Disease
  • Royal Cells Institute
  • SafeMinds
  • Society for DNA Free Food
  • StopSIDS.org
  • Strategic Autism Initiative
  • Swedish Association for the Electrosensitive
  • Talk abour Curing Autism (TACA)
  • Tetrahedron Inc.
  • Thyroid Patient Advocacy-UK
  • Toxic Element Research Foundation
  • Traumatic Brain Syndrome Research Foundation
  • Unlocking Autism
  • Vaccine Autoimmunity Project for Research and Education (VAP)
  • Vaccine Liberation
  • Vaccine Risk Awareness Network
  • Vital Interventions Accessible
  • Weston A. Price Foundation
  • World Health Foundation (New York City)
  • World Mercury Project
  • World Natural Health Organization
  • World Research Foundation
  • Zero Balancing Association
Government Agencies
Schools, Accredited But Not Recommended
  • Huntington College of Health Sciences (formerly called American Academy of Nutritio
  • American Health Science University
  • American Pacific University (accredited in 2009)
  • Australasian College of Health Sciences
  • Bastyr University
  • Huntington College of Health Sciences (HCHS)
  • Life University
  • National Institute of Nutrition Education (NINE)
  • The Union Institute
Schools Not Accredited by Recognized Accrediting Agency
  • Academy of Healing Arts
  • Academy of Natural Therapies
  • Academy of Natural Therapies & Spiritual Studies
  • Akamai University
  • Almeda University
  • American College of Addictionology and Compulsive Disorders (posted 12/23/99)
  • American College of Clinical Thermology (ACCT)
  • American College of Life Science
  • American College of Nutripathy
  • American Holistic College of Nutrition
  • American Institute of Holistic Theology
  • American Reiki Institute
  • American School of Ňedicine
  • American University of Complementary Medicine (AUCM)
  • American University of Hawaii (AUH)
  • Amstead International University
  • Australian Academy of Natural Health
    (link to another site)
  • Avicenna Institute of Traditional Healing
  • Barbara Brennan School of Healing
  • Bauman College
  • Bernadean University
  • California Institute for Human Science
  • Capital University of Integrated Medicine
  • Central States College of Health Sciences (CHCHS)
  • Chatworth College of Natural Health and Nutritional Science
  • Clayton College of Natural Health (CCNH)
  • College of Metaboilic Medicine
  • College of Natural Health
  • Columbia Pacific University
  • Columbia State University (link to another site)
  • Columbus University
  • Delphi University & Spiritual Center
  • Donsbach University
  • First National University of Naturopathy
  • Energetic Health Institute
  • Global College of Natural Medicine
  • Global Institute for Alternative Medicine (GIFAM)
  • Hawthorne University
  • Herbal Healer Academy
  • Holos University Graduate Seminary (HUGS)
  • Illinois College of Physicians and Surgeons
  • Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality
  • Institute for Educational Therapy (IET)
  • Institute for Integrative Nutrition (IIN)
  • Institute of Metaphysical Studies (IMS)
  • Institute of Natural Health Sciences
  • Institute of Natural Therapeutics
  • International Quantum University for Integrative Medicine
  • International University of Nutrition Education (IUNE)
  • International University of Professional Studies (IUPS)
  • Kennedy-Western University
  • Kingdom College of Natural Health (KCNH)
  • Lacrosse University (Bay St. Louis, Mississippi)
  • Madison University (Gulfport, Mississippi)
  • Mills-Grae University
  • National College of Complimentary Medicine and Sciences (NCCMS)
  • Natural Healing Institute of Naturopathy (NHI)
  • Nelson Mandela University, United States of America
  • New Hope Bioresonance University of Holistic Medicine
  • New Jersey College of Osteopathy
  • Newport University (Newport Beach, California)
  • Nutrition Institute of America
  • Nutritionists Institute of America
  • Pacific Western University
  • PanAmerican School & Institute of BioEnergetic Medicine
  • People’s University of the Americas (Puerto Rico)
  • Possibilities Vocational School
  • Princely International University
  • Professional School for Psychological Studies
  • Romano Byzantine College
  • Southern College of Naturopathic Medicine
  • Southwest International University (SIU)
  • St. Luke School of Medicine, SGI
  • Steps to Health
  • Trinity College of Natural Health
  • United American Medical College
  • Universal University of Holistic Spirituality
  • University of Berkley
  • University of Health Science
  • University of Integrative Health Sciences (AIHS)
  • University of Science and Philosophy
  • University of the Healing Arts
  • Westbrook University (Aztec, Arizona)
  • Yamuni Institute of Healing Arts
Non-Recognized Accrediting/Credentialing/LicensingAgencies
  • Accreditation Commission for Homeopathic Education in North America
  • Accrediting Commission for Specialized Colleges
  • Accrediting Commission International
  • Accrediting Commission International for Schools, Colleges and Theological Seminaries
  • Alternative Institution Accrediting Association
  • American Alternative Medical Association (AAMA)
  • American Association of Accredited Colleges and Universities
  • American Association of Drugless Practitioners Commission on Accreditation
  • Amrican Association of Integrative Medicine
  • American Association of Non-Traditional Private Postsecondary Education
  • American Council of Private Colleges and Universities
  • American Education Association for hte Accreditation of Schools, Colleges & Universities
  • American Naturopathic Medical Certification and Accreditation Board (ANMCAB)
  • American Psycotherapy (sic) Association
  • Arizona Commission of Non-Traditional Private Post Secondary Education
  • Association for Distance Learning (ADLP)
  • Association for Online Academic Excellence (AOAEX)
  • Association of Career Training Schools
  • Asssociation for Comprehensive Energy Psychology (ACEP)
  • Board of Integrative Medicine (BOIM)
  • Board of Natural Medicine Doctors and Peractitioners (BNMDP)
  • Commission for the Accreditation of European Non-Traditional Universities
  • Commission on Medical Denturitry Accreditation (COMDA)
  • Commission on Religious Counseling and Healing
  • Complimentary Therapists Accredited Association (CTAA)
  • Council for Distance Education Accreditation
  • Council for International Education Accreditation (CIEA)
  • Council for the Accreditation of Correspondence Schools
  • Council on Medical Denturitry Education (COMDE)
  • Council on Postsecondary Alternative Accreditation
  • Council on Postsecondary Christian Education
  • Distance Graduation Accrediting Association
  • Education Commission for Integrative Health (ECIH)
  • Examining Board of Natural Medicine Practitioners
  • Holistic Nutrition Credentialing Board
  • Hygienic Doctors Association (H.D.A.)
  • Interfaith Education Ministries (IEM)
  • International Academy of Behavioral Medicine, Counseling and Psychotherapy
  • International Accreditation Association
  • International Accrediting Association
  • International Accrediting Commission for Schools, Colleges and Theological Seminaries
  • International Association of Non-Traditional Schools
  • International College of Holistic Medicine (IHCM)
  • International Commission for the Accreditation of Colleges and Universities
  • International Council for Open and Distance Education
  • Mid States Accrediting Agency
  • Middle States Accrediting Board
  • National Academy of Higher Education (NAHE)
  • National Accreditation Association
  • National Association for Private Nontraditional Schools and Colleges
  • National Association for Private Post-Secondary Education
  • National Association of Alternative Schools and Colleges
  • National Association of Open Campus Colleges
  • National College of Holistic Medicine (NCHM)
  • National Council of Schools and Colleges
  • Non-Traditional Course Accreditation Body
  • Northwest Regional Accrediting Agency
  • Pacific Association of Schools and Colleges
  • Southern Association of Accredited Colleges and Universities
  • West European Accrediting Agency
  • Western Accrediting Agency
  • Western Association of Private Alternative Schools
  • Western Association of Schools and Colleges (note: This name is also used by a recognized accrediting agency.)
  • Western Council on Non-Traditional Private Post Secondary Education
  • World Association of Universities and Colleges
  • Worldwide Accrediting Commission
Schools, Outside the United States
Questionable “Research” Entities
Other Academies, Associations, Centers, Councils,
Foundations, Institutes, and Information Services
  • Abha Light Foundation
  • Academy of Bio-Energetic & Integrative Medicine
  • Academy of Comprehensive Integrative Medicine (ACIM)
  • Advanced Integrative Medical Institute
  • AIDS Free Foundation
  • Alphalearning Institute
  • Alternative Medicine and Biophysics Research Institute
  • Alternative Medicine Foundation
  • American Academy of Biologically Identical Hormone Therapy
  • American Academy of Integrative Medicine
  • American Academy of Neural Therapy
  • American Biographical Institute
  • American Chinese Medicine Association (ACMA)
  • American Health Institute (Los Angeles)
  • American Institute of Reboundology
  • Ändlös Institute of Preventative Medicine
  • Artery Health Institute
  • Bastis Foundation
  • Better Life Institute
  • Biomedical Health Foundation
  • BioSET Institute
  • Biosphere International Foundation
  • BioVeda Wellness Institute
  • Brain Repair Institute of Canada
  • Breast Cancer Prevention Institute
  • California Institute for Human Science
  • Cancer Cure Foundation
  • Cancerbusters Foundation
  • CANHELP
  • Center for Austic Spectrum Disorders (CASD) — Austin, Texas
  • Center for Biological Dentistry
  • Center for Development
  • Center for Empirical Medicine
  • Center for Food Safety
  • Center for Frontier Sciences (Temple University)
  • Center for Mankind Foundation
  • Center for Mind-Body Medicine
  • Center for Natural Health Research
  • Center For New Medicine
  • Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine
  • Center for Personal Rights
  • Center for Special Immunology
  • Center for the Study of Autism
  • Centerpointe Research Institute
  • Centre for Implosion Research
  • Centre for Immuno-Energy Therapy
  • Centre for Integrative Dental Medicine
  • CHEK Institute
  • Colgan Institute
  • Commonweal
  • Conservative Medicine Institute
  • Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine
  • Continuum Center for Health & Healing
  • Constipation Resource Center
  • Copes Foundation
  • Council on Religious Counseling & Healing
  • Creating Health Institute
  • Crystal Clear Mountain Research Center
  • Diabetes Resource Center (Winter Haven, Florida)
  • Discovery Institute
  • Dr. John Lee Institute
  • Eck Institute of Applied Nutrition and Bioenergetics
  • Endocrinology Institute of Santa Barbara
  • Ephedra Education Council
  • Foundation for Blood Irradiation
  • Foundation for East West Medicine (FEWM)
  • Foundation for Health Choice
  • Foundation for Psychic-Energetic Research
  • Freedom of Health Foundation
  • Frequency Foundation
  • Frontier Sciences Foundation
  • Functional Foods for Health Program (University of Illinois)
  • Genesis Medical Research Institute
  • Genetics & Disabilities Diagnostic Care Center
  • Global Healing Center
  • Global Medicine Education Foundation
  • Good News Doctor Foundation
  • Groton Wellness Center
  • Hans Nieper Foundation (HNF)
  • Health & Science Research Institute
  • Health Research Institute (Naperville, Illinois)
  • Healthy Aging Medicine Institute
  • Health-e-America Foundation
  • Healthy Detox Institute
  • The Healthy Foundation (Vitamin Relief USA)
  • Henry Spink Foundation
  • Hippocrates Health Institute
  • Holistic Resource Center
  • Hopper Institute
  • Hufnagel Institute for the Advancement of Women’s Health
  • Hypoglycemia Foundation
  • Hypoglycemia Support Foundation
  • Immune Institute
  • Institute for Health Realities
  • Institute for Human Individuality (IfHI)
  • Institute for Integrative Health
  • Institute for Integrative Nutrition (IIN)
  • Institute For Advanced BioStructural Correction
  • Institute for Blended Medicine (Rodale Press)
  • Institute for Chronic Diseases
  • Institute for Esogetic Colorpuncture
  • Institute for Functional Medicine
  • Institute for Health Realities
  • Institute for Human Energy and Biodynamic Analysis
  • Institute for Integrative Medicine
  • Institute for Nutritional Dentistry (formerly Institute for Natural Dentistry)
  • Institute for Optimum Nutrition (ION)
  • Institute for Regulative Medicine
  • Institute for Responsible Technology (IRT) (link to another site)
  • Institute for the Advancement of Medical Thermology (IAMT)
  • Institute for the Study of Human Knowledge (ISHK)
  • Institute of Advanced Medicine (Lauderhill, Florida)
  • Institute of Applied Biology (New York City)
  • Institute of Applied Psychophysics
  • Institute of Bio-Terrain Sciences
  • Institute of Bioenergetic & Informational Healthcare (IBIH)
  • Institute of BioEnergetic Medicine (IBEM)
  • Institute of HeartMath
  • Institute of Integrative Health (link to FDA warning letter)
  • Institute of Natural Health Technologies
  • Institute of Neurological Recovery
  • Institute of Neurotransmitter Science
  • Institute of Nutritional Endocrinology
  • Institute of Nutritional Science
  • Institute of Optimum Nutrition
  • Institute of Practical Biochemistry
  • Institute of Practical Psychophysics
  • Institute of Quantum and Molecular Medicine
  • Institute of Science in Society (ISIS)
  • Institute of Technical Energy Medicine, Inc. (ITEM)
  • Integrated Healing Arts Institute
  • Integrative Health Institute
  • International Academy of Anabiology
  • Intenational Academy of Somatidian Orthobiology
  • International Association for a Disease Free World (IADFW)
  • International Center for the Study of Psychiatry and Psychology (ICSPP)
  • International Child Development Resource Center (ICDRC)
  • International Council for Health Freedom (ICHF)
  • International Council for Truth in Medicine
  • International Foundation of Bio-Magnetics
  • International Foundation of Health and Nutrition (INR)
  • International Institute of Holistic Healing
  • International Sclerology Institute
  • Issels Foundation
  • Issels Medical Center
  • Jefferson – Myrna Brind Center of integrative Medicine
  • Kadmon Academy of Human Potential
  • Kathy Keeton Foundation
  • King Institute (Carrollton, Texas)
  • Lasik Vision Institute
  • Livingston Foundation Medical Center
  • Longevity Institute
  • Longevity Institute International
  • Maxillofacial Center for Education and Research
  • MCS Referral & Resources
  • Medical Awareness Institute
  • Melisa Medica Foundation
  • Metabolic Research Foundation (Harold Manner, Ph.D.)
  • Metabolic Typing Education Center (MTEC)
  • Mind/Body Medical Institute
  • National Association for Objectivity in Science (NAOS)
  • National Institute for Behavioral Education (Australia)
  • National Institute for Medical Options
  • Natural Solutions Foundation
  • Neem Foundation
  • Neuro Immuno Therapeutics Research Foundation
  • New England Heart & Longevity Center
  • North American Academy of Magnetic Therapy
  • North Carolina Institute of Technology
  • Northeastern Institute for Advanced Natural Healing
  • Nutriceutical Sciences Institute (NSI)
  • Nutritional Cancer Therapy Trust
  • Nutritional Research and Educational Foundation (NREF), Inc. (New York City)
  • Obesity Research Institute
  • OBI Foundation for Bioesthetic Dentistry
  • Option Institute
  • Omega Institute (Rhinebeck, New York)
  • Orange County Immune Intitute
  • Osteopathic Center for Children (OCC)
  • Pain Research Institute (Provo, Utah)
  • Palm Springs Life Extenstion Institute (PSLEI)
  • Perfect Health Institute
  • Pfeiffer Treatment Center
  • Physicians Center for Family Resources
  • Planetree Health Resource Center
  • PolarWearZ Wellness Institute
  • Policy Institute for Integrative Medicine
  • Polycarp Research Institute
  • Post Institute for Family Centered Therapy
  • Prince of Wales Foundation for Integrated Health
  • Progress in Medicine Foundation
  • Radix Institute
  • Remission Foundation
  • Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Center for Alternative and Complementary Medicine (Columbia University)
  • Robert Fishman Institute
  • SANA Institute
  • Sanoviv Health and Healing Center
  • Schachter Center for Complementary Medicine
  • Scoliosis Care Foundation
  • Seeking Health Educational Institute (SHEI)Â (link to another site)
  • Skilling Institute
  • Sound Entrainment Therapies Institute (SETI)
  • Sound Health Research Institute (SHRI)
  • Suffield College & University
  • Supreme Science Qigong Center
  • Syracuse Cancer Research Institute
  • Tachyon Institute
  • Talisman Wellness Institute
  • Temple Health Maintenance Institute
  • Texas Institute of Functional Medicines (TIFM)
  • Toxic Exposure Study Trust (TEST) Foundation
  • Thinktwice Global Vaccine Institute
  • Triunified Health Enhancement Foundation
  • University Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine at Stoney Brook
  • Upledger Institute
  • Vitamin C Foundation
  • Vitamin D Council
  • Waubra Foundation
  • Wellhouse Center
  • Wilson’s Syndrome Foundation
  • Women’s Health Institute of Texas
  • World Children’s Wellness Foundation
  • World Institute for Self-Healing
Trade Associations
  • Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN)
  • National Nutritional Foods Association (NNFA)

This article was revised on February 6, 2020.